|HOSTS(5)||Linux Programmer's Manual||HOSTS(5)|
NAME¶hosts - static table lookup for hostnames
DESCRIPTION¶This manual page describes the format of the /etc/hosts file. This file is a simple text file that associates IP addresses with hostnames, one line per IP address. For each host a single line should be present with the following information:
IP_address canonical_hostname [aliases...]Fields of the entry are separated by any number of blanks and/or tab characters. Text from a "#" character until the end of the line is a comment, and is ignored. Host names may contain only alphanumeric characters, minus signs ("-"), and periods ("."). They must begin with an alphabetic character and end with an alphanumeric character. Optional aliases provide for name changes, alternate spellings, shorter hostnames, or generic hostnames (for example, localhost). The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) Server implements the Internet name server for UNIX systems. It augments or replaces the /etc/hosts file or hostname lookup, and frees a host from relying on /etc/hosts being up to date and complete. In modern systems, even though the host table has been superseded by DNS, it is still widely used for:
- Most systems have a small host table containing the name and address information for important hosts on the local network. This is useful when DNS is not running, for example during system bootup.
- Sites that use NIS use the host table as input to the NIS host database. Even though NIS can be used with DNS, most NIS sites still use the host table with an entry for all local hosts as a backup.
- isolated nodes
- Very small sites that are isolated from the network use the host table instead of DNS. If the local information rarely changes, and the network is not connected to the Internet, DNS offers little advantage.
NOTES¶Modifications to this file normally take effect immediately, except in cases where the file is cached by applications.
Historical Notes¶RFC 952 gave the original format for the host table, though it has since changed.
127.0.0.1 localhost 192.168.1.10 foo.mydomain.org foo 192.168.1.13 bar.mydomain.org bar 220.127.116.11 master.debian.org master 18.104.22.168 www.opensource.org
SEE ALSO¶hostname(1), resolver(3), resolver(5), hostname(7), named(8)
COLOPHON¶This page is part of release 3.44 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.