NAME¶dpkg - package manager for Debian
SYNOPSIS¶dpkg [option...] action
WARNING¶This manual is intended for users wishing to understand dpkg's command line options and package states in more detail than that provided by dpkg --help.
DESCRIPTION¶dpkg is a tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages. The primary and more user-friendly front-end for dpkg is aptitude(1). dpkg itself is controlled entirely via command line parameters, which consist of exactly one action and zero or more options. The action-parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior of the action in some way.
INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES¶dpkg maintains some usable information about available packages. The information is divided in three classes: states, selection states and flags. These values are intended to be changed mainly with dselect.
- The package is not installed on your system.
- Only the configuration files of the package exist on the system.
- The installation of the package has been started, but not completed for some reason.
- The package is unpacked, but not configured.
- The package is unpacked and configuration has been started, but not yet completed for some reason.
- The package awaits trigger processing by another package.
- The package has been triggered.
- The package is unpacked and configured OK.
PACKAGE SELECTION STATES¶
- The package is selected for installation.
- A package marked to be on hold is not handled by dpkg, unless forced to do that with option --force-hold.
- The package is selected for deinstallation (i.e. we want to remove all files, except configuration files).
- The package is selected to be purged (i.e. we want to remove everything from system directories, even configuration files).
- A package marked reinst-required is broken and requires reinstallation. These packages cannot be removed, unless forced with option --force-remove-reinstreq.
- -i, --install package-file...
- Install the package. If --recursive or -R
option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory
- --unpack package-file...
- Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory instead.
- --configure package...|-a|--pending
- Configure a package which has been unpacked but not yet
configured. If -a or --pending is given instead of
package, all unpacked but unconfigured packages are configured.
- --triggers-only package...|-a|--pending
- Processes only triggers. All pending triggers will be processed. If package names are supplied only those packages' triggers will be processed, exactly once each where necessary. Use of this option may leave packages in the improper triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be fixed later by running: dpkg --configure --pending.
- -r, --remove, -P, --purge package...| -a|--pending
- Remove an installed package. -r or --remove
remove everything except conffiles. This may avoid having to reconfigure
the package if it is reinstalled later. (Conffiles are configuration files
that are listed in the DEBIAN/conffiles control file). -P or
--purge removes everything, including conffiles. If -a or
--pending is given instead of a package name, then all packages
unpacked, but marked to be removed or purged in file
/var/lib/dpkg/status, are removed or purged, respectively. Note:
some configuration files might be unknown to dpkg because they are
created and handled separately through the configuration scripts. In that
case, dpkg won't remove them by itself, but the package's
postrm script (which is called by dpkg), has to take care of
their removal during purge. Of course, this only applies to files in
system directories, not configuration files written to individual users'
- --update-avail, --merge-avail Packages-file
- Update dpkg's and dselect's idea of which
packages are available. With action --merge-avail, old information
is combined with information from Packages-file. With action
--update-avail, old information is replaced with the information in
the Packages-file. The Packages-file distributed with Debian
is simply named Packages. dpkg keeps its record of available
packages in /var/lib/dpkg/available.
- -A, --record-avail package-file...
- Update dpkg and dselect's idea of which packages are available with information from the package package-file. If --recursive or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory instead.
- Now obsolete and a no-op as dpkg will automatically forget uninstalled unavailable packages.
- Erase the existing information about what packages are available.
- -C, --audit
- Searches for packages that have been installed only partially on your system. dpkg will suggest what to do with them to get them working.
- --get-selections [package-name-pattern...]
- Get list of package selections, and write it to stdout. Without a pattern, non-installed packages (i.e. those which have been previously purged) will not be shown.
- Set package selections using file read from stdin. This
file should be in the format ' package state', where state
is one of install, hold, deinstall or purge.
Blank lines and comment lines beginning with '#' are also permitted.
- Set the requested state of every non-essential package to deinstall. This is intended to be used immediately before --set-selections, to deinstall any packages not in list given to --set-selections.
- Searches for packages selected for installation, but which for some reason still haven't been installed.
- --add-architecture architecture
- Add architecture to the list of architectures for which packages can be installed without using --force-architecture. The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of --print-architecture) is always part of that list.
- --remove-architecture architecture
- Remove architecture from the list of architectures for which packages can be installed without using --force-architecture. If the architecture is currently in use in the database then the operation will be refused, except if --force-architecture is specified. The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of --print-architecture) can never be removed from that list.
- Print architecture of packages dpkg installs (for example, "i386").
- Print a newline-separated list of the extra architectures dpkg is configured to allow packages to be installed for.
- --compare-versions ver1 op ver2
- Compare version numbers, where op is a binary operator. dpkg returns success (zero result) if the specified condition is satisfied, and failure (nonzero result) otherwise. There are two groups of operators, which differ in how they treat an empty ver1 or ver2. These treat an empty version as earlier than any version: lt le eq ne ge gt. These treat an empty version as later than any version: lt-nl le-nl ge-nl gt-nl. These are provided only for compatibility with control file syntax: < << <= = >= >> >.
- -?, --help
- Display a brief help message.
- Give help about the --force-thing options.
- -Dh, --debug=help
- Give help about debugging options.
- Display dpkg version information.
- dpkg-deb actions
- See dpkg-deb(1) for more information about the
-b, --build directory [archive|directory] Build a deb package. -c, --contents archive List contents of a deb package. -e, --control filename [directory] Extract control-information from a package. -x, --extract archive directory Extract the files contained by package. -X, --vextract archive directory Extract and display the filenames contained by a package. -f, --field archive [control-field...] Display control field(s) of a package. --fsys-tarfile archive Display the filesystem tar-file contained by a Debian package. -I, --info archive [control-file...] Show information about a package.
- dpkg-query actions
- See dpkg-query(1) for more information about the
-l, --list package-name-pattern... List packages matching given pattern. -s, --status package-name... Report status of specified package. -L, --listfiles package-name... List files installed to your system from package-name. -S, --search filename-search-pattern... Search for a filename from installed packages. -p, --print-avail package-name... Display details about package-name, as found in /var/lib/dpkg/available. Users of APT-based frontends should use apt-cache show package-name instead.
OPTIONS¶All options can be specified both on the command line and in the dpkg configuration file /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg or fragment files (with names matching this shell pattern '[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*') on the configuration directory /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/. Each line in the configuration file is either an option (exactly the same as the command line option but without leading dashes) or a comment (if it starts with a #).
- Change after how many errors dpkg will abort. The default is 50.
- -B, --auto-deconfigure
- When a package is removed, there is a possibility that another installed package depended on the removed package. Specifying this option will cause automatic deconfiguration of the package which depended on the removed package.
- -Doctal, --debug=octal
- Switch debugging on. octal is formed by
bitwise-orring desired values together from the list below (note that
these values may change in future releases). -Dh or
--debug=help display these debugging values.
1 Generally helpful progress information
2 Invocation and status of maintainer scripts
10 Output for each file processed
100 Lots of output for each file processed
20 Output for each configuration file
200 Lots of output for each configuration file
40 Dependencies and conflicts
400 Lots of dependencies/conflicts output
10000 Trigger activation and processing
20000 Lots of output regarding triggers
40000 Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
1000 Lots of drivel about e.g. the dpkg/info dir
2000 Insane amounts of drivel
- --force-things, --no-force-things, --refuse-things
- Ignore dependency-checking for specified packages (actually, checking is performed, but only warnings about conflicts are given, nothing else).
- --no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
- Do everything which is supposed to be done, but don't write
any changes. This is used to see what would happen with the specified
action, without actually modifying anything.
- -R, --recursive
- Recursively handle all regular files matching pattern *.deb found at specified directories and all of its subdirectories. This can be used with -i, -A, --install, --unpack and --avail actions.
- Don't install a package if a newer version of the same package is already installed. This is an alias of --refuse-downgrade.
- Change default administrative directory, which contains many files that give information about status of installed or uninstalled packages, etc. (Defaults to /var/lib/dpkg)
- Change default installation directory which refers to the directory where packages are to be installed. instdir is also the directory passed to chroot(2) before running package's installation scripts, which means that the scripts see instdir as a root directory. (Defaults to /)
- Changing root changes instdir to dir and admindir to dir/var/lib/dpkg.
- -O, --selected-only
- Only process the packages that are selected for installation. The actual marking is done with dselect or by dpkg, when it handles packages. For example, when a package is removed, it will be marked selected for deinstallation.
- -E, --skip-same-version
- Don't install the package if the same version of the package is already installed.
Set an invoke hook command to be run via “sh -c” before or after the dpkg run for the unpack, configure, install, triggers-only, remove and purge dpkg actions. This option can be specified multiple times. The order the options are specified is preserved, with the ones from the configuration files taking precedence. The environment variable DPKG_HOOK_ACTION is set for the hooks to the current dpkg action. Note: front-ends might call dpkg several times per invocation, which might run the hooks more times than expected.--path-exclude=glob-pattern
Set glob-pattern as a path filter, either by excluding or re-including previously excluded paths matching the specified patterns during install.Warning: take into account that depending on the excluded paths you might completely break your system, use with caution.The glob patterns use the same wildcards used in the shell, were '*' matches any sequence of characters, including the empty string and also '/'. For example, '/usr/*/READ*' matches '/usr/share/doc/package/README'. As usual, '?' matches any single character (again, including '/'). And '[' starts a character class, which can contain a list of characters, ranges and complementations. See glob(7) for detailed information about globbing. Note: the current implementation might re-include more directories and symlinks than needed, to be on the safe side and avoid possible unpack failures, future work might fix this.This can be used to remove all paths except some particular ones; a typical case is:to remove all documentation files except the copyright files.These two options can be specified multiple times, and interleaved with each other. Both are processed in the given order, with the last rule that matches a file name making the decision.
- --status-fd n
- Send machine-readable package status and progress information to file descriptor n. This option can be specified multiple times. The information is generally one record per line, in one of the following forms:
- status: package: status
- Package status changed; status is as in the status file.
- status: package : error : extended-error-message
- An error occurred. Any possible newlines in extended-error-message will be converted to spaces before output.
- status: file : conffile-prompt : 'real-old' 'real-new' useredited distedited
- User is being asked a conffile question.
- processing: stage: package
- Sent just before a processing stage starts. stage is one of upgrade, install (both sent before unpacking), configure, trigproc, disappear, remove, purge.
- Send machine-readable package status and progress information to the shell command's standard input. This option can be specified multiple times. The output format used is the same as in --status-fd.
- Log status change updates and actions to filename, instead of the default /var/log/dpkg.log. If this option is given multiple times, the last filename is used. Log messages are of the form `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS status state pkg installed-version' for status change updates; `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS action pkg installed-version available-version' for actions where action is one of install, upgrade, remove, purge; and `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS conffile filename decision' for conffile changes where decision is either install or keep.
- Do not try to verify package signatures.
- Do not run any triggers in this run (activations will still be recorded). If used with --configure package or --triggers-only package then the named package postinst will still be run even if only a triggers run is needed. Use of this option may leave packages in the improper triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be fixed later by running: dpkg --configure --pending.
- Cancels a previous --no-triggers.
- Configuration fragment files.
- Configuration file with default options.
- Default log file (see /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg(5) and option --log).
- List of available packages.
- Statuses of available packages. This file contains
information about whether a package is marked for removing or not, whether
it is installed or not, etc. See section INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES
for more info.
- If set, dpkg will use it as the directory from which to read the user specific configuration file.
- If set, dpkg will use it as the directory in which to create temporary files and directories.
- The program dpkg will execute when displaying the conffiles.
- The program dpkg will execute when starting a new shell.
- Sets the number of columns dpkg should use when displaying formatted text. Currently only used by -l.
- Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation. Current valid value: conffile-prompt.
- Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation. Contains the path to the old conffile.
- Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation. Contains the path to the new conffile.
- Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the version of the currently running dpkg instance.
- Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the package name being handled.
- Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the architecture the package got built for.
- Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the name of the script running (preinst, postinst, prerm, postrm).
EXAMPLES¶To list installed packages related to the editor vi(1) (note that dpkg-query does not load the available file anymore by default, and the dpkg-query --load-avail option should be used instead for that):
ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONALITY¶Additional functionality can be gained by installing any of the following packages: apt, aptitude and debsums.
SEE ALSO¶aptitude(1), apt(1), dselect(1), dpkg-deb(1), dpkg-query(1), deb(5), deb-control(5), dpkg.cfg(5), and dpkg-reconfigure(8).
BUGS¶--no-act usually gives less information than might be helpful.
AUTHORS¶See /usr/share/doc/dpkg/THANKS for the list of people who have contributed to dpkg.