displays a calendar and the date of Easter
utility displays a simple calendar in
traditional format and ncal
offers an alternative
layout, more options and the date of Easter. The new format is a little
cramped but it makes a year fit on a 25x80 terminal. If arguments are not
specified, the current month is displayed.
The options are as follows:
- Turns off highlighting of today.
- Display Julian Calendar, if combined with the
-o option, display date of Orthodox Easter
according to the Julian Calendar.
- Display date of Easter (for western churches).
- Display Julian days (days one-based, numbered from January
- Display the specified
month is specified as a decimal number,
p’ displays the same month of the
following or previous year respectively.
- Display date of Orthodox Easter (Greek and Russian Orthodox
- Print the country codes and switching days from Julian to
Gregorian Calendar as they are assumed by
ncal. The country code as determined from the
local environment is marked with an asterisk.
- Assume the switch from Julian to Gregorian Calendar at the
date associated with the country_code. If
not specified, ncal tries to guess the switch
date from the local environment or falls back to September 2, 1752. This
was when Great Britain and her colonies switched to the Gregorian
- Print the number of the week below each week column.
- Display a calendar for the specified year. This option is
implied when a year but no month are specified on the command line.
- Display the previous, current and next month surrounding
- Display only the current month. This is the default.
- Months to add after. The specified number of months is
added to the end of the display. This is in addition to any date range
selected by the -y,
-3, or -1
options. For example, “
cal -y -B2
-A2” shows everything from November of the previous year to
February of the following year. Negative numbers are allowed, in which
case the specified number of months is subtracted. For example,
cal -y -B-6” shows July to
December. And “
cal -A11” simply
shows the next 12 months.
- Months to add before. The specified number of months is
added to the beginning of the display. See -A
- Completely switch to cal mode.
For cal like output only, use
- Switch to ncal mode.
- Use yyyy-mm as the current
date (for debugging of date selection).
- Use yyyy-mm-dd as the
current date (for debugging of highlighting).
- Weeks start on Monday.
- Weeks start on Sunday.
- Use oldstyle format for ncal output.
A single parameter specifies the year (1–9999) to be displayed; note the
year must be fully specified: “
display a calendar for 1989. Two
parameters denote the month and year; the month is either a number between 1
and 12, or a full or abbreviated name as specified by the current locale.
Month and year default to those of the current system clock and time zone (so
cal -m 8
” will display a calendar for
the month of August in the current year).
Not all options can be used together. For example, the options
are mutually exclusive. If inconsistent
options are given, the later ones take precedence over the earlier ones.
A year starts on January 1.
command appeared in
Version 5 AT&T UNIX
command appeared in FreeBSD
. The output of the cal
supposed to be bit for bit compatible to the original Unix
command, because its output is processed by
other programs like CGI scripts, that should not be broken. Therefore it will
always output 8 lines, even if only 7 contain data. This extra blank line also
appears with the original cal
command, at least
on Solaris 8
command and manual were written by
The assignment of Julian–Gregorian switching dates to country codes is
historically naive for many countries.
Not all options are compatible and using them in different orders will give