|CAL(1)||General Commands Manual||CAL(1)|
displays a calendar and the date of Easter
cal utility displays a simple calendar
in traditional format and
ncal offers an alternative
layout, more options and the date of Easter. The new format is a little
cramped but it makes a year fit on a 25x80 terminal. If arguments are not
specified, the current month is displayed.
The options are as follows:
- Turns off highlighting of today.
- Display Julian Calendar, if combined with the
-ooption, display date of Orthodox Easter according to the Julian Calendar.
- Display date of Easter (for western churches).
- Display Julian days (days one-based, numbered from January 1).
- Display the specified month. If
month is specified as a decimal number, appending
f’ or ‘
p’ displays the same month of the following or previous year respectively.
- Display date of Orthodox Easter (Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches).
- Print the country codes and switching days from Julian to Gregorian
Calendar as they are assumed by
ncal. The country code as determined from the local environment is marked with an asterisk.
- Assume the switch from Julian to Gregorian Calendar at the date associated
with the country_code. If not specified,
ncaltries to guess the switch date from the local environment or falls back to September 2, 1752. This was when Great Britain and her colonies switched to the Gregorian Calendar.
- Print the number of the week below each week column.
- Display a calendar for the specified year. This option is implied when a year but no month are specified on the command line.
- Display the previous, current and next month surrounding today.
- Display only the current month. This is the default.
- Months to add after. The specified number of months is added to the end of
the display. This is in addition to any date range selected by the
-1options. For example, “
cal -y -B2 -A2” shows everything from November of the previous year to February of the following year. Negative numbers are allowed, in which case the specified number of months is subtracted. For example, “
cal -y -B-6” shows July to December. And “
cal -A11” simply shows the next 12 months.
- Months to add before. The specified number of months is added to the
beginning of the display. See
- Completely switch to
callike output only, use
- Switch to
- Use yyyy-mm as the current date (for debugging of date selection).
- Use yyyy-mm-dd as the current date (for debugging of highlighting).
- Weeks start on Monday.
- Weeks start on Sunday.
- Use oldstyle format for ncal output.
A single parameter specifies the year (1–9999) to
be displayed; note the year must be fully specified:
cal 89” will
not display a
calendar for 1989. Two parameters denote the month and year; the month is
either a number between 1 and 12, or a full or abbreviated name as specified
by the current locale. Month and year default to those of the current system
clock and time zone (so “
cal -m 8”
will display a calendar for the month of August in the current year).
Not all options can be used together. For example the options
-1 are mutually exclusive. If inconsistent options
are given, the later ones take precedence over the earlier ones.
A year starts on January 1.
Highlighting of dates is disabled if stdout is not a tty.
cal utility is compliant with the
X/Open System Interfaces option of the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008
The flags [
-3hyJeopw], as well as the
ability to specify a month name as a single argument, are extensions to that
The week number computed by
compliant with the ISO 8601 specification.
cal command appeared in
Version 1 AT&T UNIX. The
ncal command appeared in FreeBSD
2.2.6. The output of the
cal command is
supposed to be bit for bit compatible to the original Unix
cal command, because its output is processed by
other programs like CGI scripts, that should not be broken. Therefore it
will always output 8 lines, even if only 7 contain data. This extra blank
line also appears with the original
cal command, at
least on Solaris 8
ncal command and manual were written
by Wolfgang Helbig
The assignment of Julian–Gregorian switching dates to country codes is historically naive for many countries.
Not all options are compatible and using them in different orders will give varying results.
It is not possible to display Monday as the first day of the week
|March 7, 2019||Debian|