groff_www - groff macros for authoring web pages
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This manual page describes the GNU -mwww macro package, which is part of the
groff document formatting system. The manual page is very a basic guide, and
the html device driver (grohtml
) has been completely rewritten but
still remains as in an alpha state. It has been included into the distribution
so that a lot of people have a chance to test it. Note that this macro file is
automatically called (via the troffrc
file) if you use -Thtml
To see the hyperlinks in action, please format this man page with the
Here is a summary of the functions found in this macro set.
||split output into multiple files
||automatic heading level cut off
||specify colours on a web page
||specify background image
||create a url using two parameters
||create an ftp reference
||create a html email address
||create an ftp reference
||generate an html name
||include an image file
||include png image
||place png on the margin and wrap text around it
||emit automatically collected links.
||produce a horizontal rule
||suppress automatic generation of rules.
||only generate HTML title
||add data to <head> block
||unorder list begin
||unorder list end
||ordered list begin
||ordered list end
||definition list begin
||definition list end
||insert a list item
||generate a drop capital
||pass an html raw request to the device driver
||code example begin
||code example end
||place links on left of main text.
||start a new two-column table with links in the left.
||end the two-column table.
||initialize default url attributes.
Output of the pic
, and tbl
is acceptable as input.
- .JOBNAME filename
- Split output into multiple HTML files. A file is split
whenever a .SH or .NH 1 is encountered. Its argument is the file stem
name for future output files. This option is equivalent to
grohtml's -j option.
- .HX n
- Specify the cut off depth when generating links from
section headings. For example, a parameter of 2 would cause
grohtml to generate a list of links for .NH 1 and
.NH 2 but not for .NH 3. Whereas
- tells grohtml that no heading links should be
created at all. Another method for turning automatic headings off is by
issuing the the command line switch -P-l to groff.
- .BCL foreground background active not-visited
- This macro takes five parameters: foreground, background,
active hypertext link, hypertext link not yet visited, and visited
hypertext link colour.
- .BGIMG imagefile
- the only parameter to this macro is the background image
- .URL url [description] [after]
- generates a URL using either one, two or three arguments.
The first parameter is the actual URL, the second is the name of the link,
and the third is optional stuff to be printed immediately afterwards. If
description and after are absent then the url becomes
the anchor text. Hyphenation is disabled while printing the actual URL;
explicit breakpoints should be inserted with the \: escape. Here is
how to encode
- .URL http://\:foo.\:org/ foo :
- If this is processed by a device other than -Thtml
or -Txhtml it appears as:
- The URL macro can be of any type; for example we can
- .URL pic.html "Eric Raymond's pic
- .MTO address [description] [after]
- Generate an email html reference. The first argument is
mandatory as the email address. The optional second argument is the text
you see in your browser If an empty argument is given, address is
used instead. An optional third argument is stuff printed immediately
afterwards. Hyphenation is disabled while printing the actual email
address. For example, was achieved by the following macro:
- .MTO firstname.lastname@example.org "Joe User"
- Note that all the URLs actually are treated as consuming no
textual space in groff. This could be considered as a bug since it causes
some problems. To circumvent this, www.tmac inserts a zero-width
character which expands to a harmless space (only if run with
-Thtml or -Txhtml).
- .FTP url [description] [after]
- indicates that data can be obtained via ftp. The first
argument is the url and the second is the browser text. A third argument,
similar to the macros above, is intended for stuff printed immediately
afterwards. The second and the third parameter are optional. Hyphenation
is disabled while printing the actual URL. As an example, here the
location of the The macro example above was specified by:
- .FTP ftp://\:ftp.gnu.org/ "GNU ftp server"
- .TAG name
- Generates an html name tag from its argument. This can then
be referenced using the macro. As you can see, you must precede the tag
name with # since it is a local reference. This link was achieved
via placing a TAG in the URL description above; the source looks like
a URL using either two or three arguments.
- .IMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width] [height]
- Include a picture into the document. The first argument is
the horizontal location: right, left, or center (-R, -L, or
-C). Alignment is centered by default (-C). The second argument is
the filename. The optional third and fourth arguments are the width and
height. If the width is absent it defaults to 1 inch. If the height
is absent it defaults to the width. This maps onto an html img tag. If you
are including a png image then it is advisable to use the PIMG
- .PIMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width [height]]
- Include an image in PNG format. This macro takes exactly
the same parameters as the IMG macro; it has the advantage of
working with postscript and html devices also since it can automatically
convert the image into the EPS format, using the following programs of the
netpbm package: pngtopnm, pnmcrop, and
pnmtops. If the document isn't processed with -Thtml or
-Txhtml it is necessary to use the -U option of groff.
- .MPIMG [-R|-L] [-G gap] filename [width
- Place a PNG image on the margin and wrap text around it.
The first parameters are optional. The alignment: left or right (-L
or -R) specifies the margin where the picture is placed at. The
default alignment is left (-L). Optionally,
-G gap can be used to arrange a gap between the picture
and the text that wraps around it. The default gap width is zero.
The first non-optional argument is the filename. The optional following
arguments are the width and height. If the width is absent it defaults to
1 inch. If the height is absent it defaults to the width.
.MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 3c 1.5c
- The height and width may also be given as percentages. The
PostScript device calculates the width from the .l register and the
height from the .p register. For example:
.MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 15%
- .HnS n
- Begin heading. The numeric heading level n is
specified by the first parameter. Use this macro if your headings contain
URL, FTP or MTO macros. Example:
- In this case you might wish to disable automatic links to
headings. This can be done via -P-l from the command line.
- End heading.
- Force grohtml to place the automatically generated links at
this position. If this manual page has been processed with -Thtml
or -Txhtml those links can be seen right here.
- Generate a full-width horizontal rule for -Thtml and
-Txhtml. No effect for all other devices.
- Suppress generation of the top and bottom rules which
grohtml emits by default.
- Generate an HTML title only. This differs from the
TL macro of the ms macro package which generates both an
HTML title and an <H1> heading. Use it to provide an HTML title as
search engine fodder but a graphic title in the document. The macro
terminates when a space or break is seen (.sp, .br).
- Add arbitrary HTML data to the <head> block. Ignored
if not processed with -Thtml or -Txhtml. Example:
- All text after this macro is treated as raw html. If the
document is processed without -Thtml or -Txhtml then the
macro is ignored. Internally, this macro is used as a building block for
other higher-level macros.
- For example, the BGIMG macro is defined as
. HTML <body background=\$1>
- .DC l text [color]
- Produce a drop capital. The first parameter is the letter
to be dropped and enlarged, the second parameter text is the
ajoining text whose height the first letter should not exceed. The
optional third parameter is the color of the dropped letter. It defaults
- Start displaying a code section in constant width
- End code display
- .ALN [color] [percentage]
- Place section heading links automatically to the left of
the main text. The color argument is optional and if present indicates
which HTML background color is to be used under the links. The optional
percentage indicates the amount of width to devote to displaying the
links. The default values are #eeeeee and 30 for color and percentage
width, respectively. This macro should only be called once at the
beginning of the document. After calling this macro each section heading
emits an HTML table consisting of the links in the left and the section
text on the right.
- Start a new two-column table with links in the left column.
This can be called if the document has text before the first .SH and if
.ALN is used. Typically this is called just before the first paragraph and
after the main title as it indicates that text after this point should be
positioned to the right of the left-hand navigational links.
- End a two-column table. This should be called at the end of
the document if .ALN was used.
- .LINKSTYLE color [ fontstyle [ openglyph closeglyph ]
- Initialize default url attributes to be used if this macro
set is not used with the HTML device. The macro set initializes itself
with the following call
.LINKSTYLE blue C \[la] \[ra]
- but these values will be superseded by a user call to
SECTION HEADING LINKS¶
By default grohtml
generates links to all section headings and places
these at the top of the html document. (See for details of how to switch this
off or alter the position).
LIMITATIONS OF GROHTML¶
information is currently rendered as a PNG image.
, troff(1) grohtml(1)
was written by
Report bugs to the Include a complete, self-contained example that will allow
the bug to be reproduced, and say which version of groff you are using.