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MBROLA(1) General Commands Manual MBROLA(1)


mbrola - multilingual software speech synthesizer


mbrola [options]<voice_database><pho_file>...<output_file>


mbrola is a speech synthesizer based on the concatenation of diphones. It takes a list of phonemes as input, together with prosodic information (duration of phonemes and a piecewise linear description of pitch), and produces speech samples on 16 bits (linear), at the sampling frequency of the diphone database.

It is therefore NOT a Text-To-Speech (TTS) synthesizer, since it does not accept raw text as input. In order to obtain a full TTS system, you need to use this synthesizer in combination with a text processing system that produces phonetic and prosodic commands. For instance, you may use package freephone to obtain complete English TTS.

A `-' instead of pho_file or output_file means stdin or stdout. Extension of output_file ( raw, au, wav, aiff ) tells the wanted audio format.


mbrola understands following command line options.

Show summary of options.

Display the database information if any.

Ignore fatal errors on unknown diphone.
Set COMMENT char (escape sequence in pho files).
Set FLUSH command name.
Volume ratio. Float ratio applied to output samples.
Frequency ratio. Float ratio applied to pitch points.
Time ratio. Float ratio applied to phone durations.
Voice frequency. Target frequency for voice quality in Hz.
Phoneme rename list of the form: `a A b B ...'
Phoneme clone list of the form: `a A b B ...'
Initialization file containing one command per line. CLONE, RENAME, VOICE, TIME, FREQ, VOLUME, FLUSH, COMMENT, and IGNORE are available.


freephone(1), sox(1).
See /usr/share/doc/mbrola/readme.txt.gz for more info.


mbrola was written by Dr Thierry Dutoit <>

This manual page was written by Igor B. Poretsky <>, for the Debian project (but may be used by others).

May 17, 2005