NAME¶named - Internet domain name server
named [[-4] | [-6]] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-D string] [-E engine-name] [-f] [-g] [-L logfile] [-M option] [-m flag] [-n #cpus] [-p port] [-s] [-S #max-socks] [-t directory] [-U #listeners] [-u user] [-v] [-V] [-X lock-file] [-x cache-file]
DESCRIPTION¶named is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035.
When invoked without arguments, named will read the default configuration file /etc/named.conf, read any initial data, and listen for queries.
When BIND is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support, this defaults to the string "pkcs11", which identifies an OpenSSL engine that can drive a cryptographic accelerator or hardware service module. When BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11 provider library specified via "--with-pkcs11".
This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release.
This option should be unnecessary for the vast majority of users. The use of this option could even be harmful because the specified value may exceed the limitation of the underlying system API. It is therefore set only when the default configuration causes exhaustion of file descriptors and the operational environment is known to support the specified number of sockets. Note also that the actual maximum number is normally a little fewer than the specified value because named reserves some file descriptors for its internal use.
This option should be used in conjunction with the -u option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security on most systems; the way chroot(2) is defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a chroot jail.
On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all root privileges except the ability to bind(2) to a privileged port and set process resource limits. Unfortunately, this means that the -u option only works when named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow privileges to be retained after setuid(2).
This option must not be used. It is only of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release.
SIGNALS¶In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the nameserver; rndc should be used instead.
The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.
CONFIGURATION¶The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here. A complete description is provided in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.
named inherits the umask (file creation mode mask) from the parent process. If files created by named, such as journal files, need to have custom permissions, the umask should be set explicitly in the script used to start the named process.
SEE ALSO¶RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, named-checkconf(8), named-checkzone(8), rndc(8), named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.
AUTHOR¶Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
COPYRIGHT¶Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2003-2009, 2011, 2013-2020 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")