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PRINTCAP(8) May 10, 1991 PRINTCAP(8)


printcap - 打印机相容性数据库




Printcaptermcap(5) 的简单版, 用来描述 line printers. 当用到 spool 系 统时, 一定会去参考 printcap 这个档. 允许动态地加入及删除印表机. 在这资料 库中的每一段叙述代表一台印表机. This data base may not be substituted for, as is possible for termcap, because it may allow accounting to be bypassed.

预设的印表机是 lp, 虽然环境变数 PRINTER 可能优于(override)此. 每一 个用到 spool 的软体都支援 -p 的选项, 用以选择印表机. 如果想知道如何为一 台印表机设定资料的讨论, 请参照 4.3 BSD Line Printer Spooler Manual.


根据 termcap(5) 对档案输出的描述.

Name Type Description
af str NULL name of accounting file
br num none if lp is a tty, set the baud
rate (ioctl(2) call)
cf str NULL cifplot data filter
df str NULL tex data filter (DVI format)
fc num 0 if lp is a tty, clear flag
bits (sgtty.h)
ff str ` string to send for a form
fo bool false print a form feed when
device is opened
fs num 0 like `fc' but set bits
gf str NULL graph data filter (plot(3)
hl bool false print the burst header page
ic bool false driver supports(non standard)
ioctl to indent printout
if str NULL name of text filter which
does accounting
lf str /dev/console error logging file name
lo str lock name of lock file
lp str /dev/lp device name to open for
mx num 1000 maximum file size (in BUFSIZ
blocks), zero = unlimited
nd str NULL next directory for list of
queues (unimplemented)
nf str NULL ditroff data filter (device
independent troff)
of str NULL name of output filtering
pc num 200 price per foot or page in
hundredths of cents
pl num 66 page length (in lines)
pw num 132 page width (in characters)
px num 0 page width in pixels
py num 0 page length in pixels
rf str NULL filter for printing FORTRAN
style text files
rg str NULL restricted group. Only
members of group allowed access
rm str NULL machine name for remote
rp str ``lp'' remote printer name argument
rs bool false restrict remote users to
those with local accounts
rw bool false open the printer device for
reading and writing
sb bool false short banner (one line only)
sc bool false suppress multiple copies
sd str /var/spool/lpd spool directory
sf bool false suppress form feeds
sh bool false suppress printing of burst
page header
st str status status file name
tf str NULL troff data filter (cat
tr str NULL trailer string to print when
queue empties
vf str NULL raster image filter

如果本地端印表机(local line printer) driver 支援 indentation 的话, daemon 将 知道如何去用它.


lpd(8) 守护进程将创造出一个过滤的管线 (pipeline of filters) 来处理各个不同印 表机的档案. 过滤器将依照旗标来选择将何者送到 lpr(1) . 管线的设定值有:

p pr | if regular text + pr(1)
none If regular text
c cf cifplot
d df DVI (tex)
g gf plot(3)
n nf ditroff
f rf Fortran
t tf troff
v vf raster image

if 过滤器的用法是:

if [-c] -wwidth -llength -iindent -n login -h host acct-file

-c 这个旗标只有在 -l 旗标有列在 lpr 中时才可忽略. width 和 length 定义 了 page 的长和宽 (from pw and pl respectively). -n 和 -h 可指定列印工作拥有者 的 login name 和 host name. Acct-file 将忽略 printcap 中的描述.

If no if is specified, of is used instead, with the distinction that of is opened only once, while if is opened for every individual job. Thus, if is better suited to performing accounting. The of is only given the width and length flags.


filter -xwidth -ylength -n login -h host acct-file

如果要用 pixels 为单位来定长宽的话, 用 px 和 py 这二个变数. 所有的过滤器都经由 stdin 输入档案, stdout 输出到印表机, 用 stderr 或 syslog(3) 来记录(log), 而且不会忽略 SIGINT.


Error messages generated by the line printer programs themselves (that is, the lp* programs) are logged by syslog(3) using the LPR facility. Messages printed on stderr of one of the filters are sent to the corre- sponding lf file. The filters may, of course, use syslog themselves.

Error messages sent to the console have a carriage return and a line feed appended to them, rather than just a line feed.


termcap(5), lpc(8), lpd(8), pac(8), lpr(1), lpq(1), lprm(1)
4.3 BSD Line Printer Spooler Manual.


The printcap file format appeared in 4.2BSD..


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UNIX Programmer's Manual 4.2 Berkeley Distribution