## table of contents

complex16OTHERsolve(3) | LAPACK | complex16OTHERsolve(3) |

# NAME¶

complex16OTHERsolve# SYNOPSIS¶

## Functions¶

subroutine

**zgglse**(M, N, P, A, LDA, B, LDB, C, D, X, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

**ZGGLSE solves overdetermined or underdetermined systems for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zhpsv**(UPLO, N, NRHS, AP, IPIV, B, LDB, INFO)

**ZHPSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zhpsvx**(FACT, UPLO, N, NRHS, AP, AFP, IPIV, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, FERR, BERR, WORK, RWORK, INFO)

**ZHPSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zpbsv**(UPLO, N, KD, NRHS, AB, LDAB, B, LDB, INFO)

**ZPBSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zpbsvx**(FACT, UPLO, N, KD, NRHS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, EQUED, S, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, FERR, BERR, WORK, RWORK, INFO)

**ZPBSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zppsv**(UPLO, N, NRHS, AP, B, LDB, INFO)

**ZPPSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zppsvx**(FACT, UPLO, N, NRHS, AP, AFP, EQUED, S, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, FERR, BERR, WORK, RWORK, INFO)

**ZPPSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zspsv**(UPLO, N, NRHS, AP, IPIV, B, LDB, INFO)

**ZSPSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**subroutine

**zspsvx**(FACT, UPLO, N, NRHS, AP, AFP, IPIV, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, FERR, BERR, WORK, RWORK, INFO)

**ZSPSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

# Detailed Description¶

This is the group of complex16 Other Solve routines# Function Documentation¶

## subroutine zgglse (integer M, integer N, integer P, complex*16, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex*16, dimension( * ) C, complex*16, dimension( * ) D, complex*16, dimension( * ) X, complex*16, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**ZGGLSE solves overdetermined or underdetermined systems for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZGGLSE solves the linear equality-constrained least squares (LSE) problem: minimize || c - A*x ||_2 subject to B*x = d where A is an M-by-N matrix, B is a P-by-N matrix, c is a given M-vector, and d is a given P-vector. It is assumed that P <= N <= M+P, and rank(B) = P and rank( (A) ) = N. ( (B) ) These conditions ensure that the LSE problem has a unique solution, which is obtained using a generalized RQ factorization of the matrices (B, A) given by B = (0 R)*Q, A = Z*T*Q.

**Parameters**

*M*

M is INTEGER The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of columns of the matrices A and B. N >= 0.

*P*

P is INTEGER The number of rows of the matrix B. 0 <= P <= N <= M+P.

*A*

A is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N) On entry, the M-by-N matrix A. On exit, the elements on and above the diagonal of the array contain the min(M,N)-by-N upper trapezoidal matrix T.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,N) On entry, the P-by-N matrix B. On exit, the upper triangle of the subarray B(1:P,N-P+1:N) contains the P-by-P upper triangular matrix R.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,P).

*C*

C is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (M) On entry, C contains the right hand side vector for the least squares part of the LSE problem. On exit, the residual sum of squares for the solution is given by the sum of squares of elements N-P+1 to M of vector C.

*D*

D is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (P) On entry, D contains the right hand side vector for the constrained equation. On exit, D is destroyed.

*X*

X is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N) On exit, X is the solution of the LSE problem.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK)) On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= max(1,M+N+P). For optimum performance LWORK >= P+min(M,N)+max(M,N)*NB, where NB is an upper bound for the optimal blocksizes for ZGEQRF, CGERQF, ZUNMQR and CUNMRQ. If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit. < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value. = 1: the upper triangular factor R associated with B in the generalized RQ factorization of the pair (B, A) is singular, so that rank(B) < P; the least squares solution could not be computed. = 2: the (N-P) by (N-P) part of the upper trapezoidal factor T associated with A in the generalized RQ factorization of the pair (B, A) is singular, so that rank( (A) ) < N; the least squares solution could not ( (B) ) be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

## subroutine zhpsv (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( * ) AP, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**ZHPSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZHPSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**H, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, D is Hermitian and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*AP*

AP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) On entry, the upper or lower triangle of the Hermitian matrix A, packed columnwise in a linear array. The j-th column of A is stored in the array AP as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AP(i + (j-1)*j/2) = A(i,j) for 1<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AP(i + (j-1)*(2n-j)/2) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=n. See below for further details. On exit, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**H or A = L*D*L**H as computed by ZHPTRF, stored as a packed triangular matrix in the same storage format as A.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N) Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by ZHPTRF. If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were interchanged, and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'U' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and columns k-1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'L' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns k+1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B. On exit, if INFO = 0, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is exactly singular, so the solution could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

The packed storage scheme is illustrated by the following example when N = 4, UPLO = 'U': Two-dimensional storage of the Hermitian matrix A: a11 a12 a13 a14 a22 a23 a24 a33 a34 (aij = conjg(aji)) a44 Packed storage of the upper triangle of A: AP = [ a11, a12, a22, a13, a23, a33, a14, a24, a34, a44 ]

## subroutine zhpsvx (character FACT, character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( * ) AP, complex*16, dimension( * ) AFP, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex*16, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, double precision RCOND, double precision, dimension( * ) FERR, double precision, dimension( * ) BERR, complex*16, dimension( * ) WORK, double precision, dimension( * ) RWORK, integer INFO)¶

**ZHPSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZHPSVX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization A = U*D*U**H or A = L*D*L**H to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided.

**Description:**

The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'N', the diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**H, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices and D is Hermitian and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 2. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 3. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 4. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it.

**Parameters**

*FACT*

FACT is CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not the factored form of A has been supplied on entry. = 'F': On entry, AFP and IPIV contain the factored form of A. AFP and IPIV will not be modified. = 'N': The matrix A will be copied to AFP and factored.

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

*AP*

AP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) The upper or lower triangle of the Hermitian matrix A, packed columnwise in a linear array. The j-th column of A is stored in the array AP as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AP(i + (j-1)*j/2) = A(i,j) for 1<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AP(i + (j-1)*(2*n-j)/2) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=n. See below for further details.

*AFP*

AFP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) If FACT = 'F', then AFP is an input argument and on entry contains the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**H or A = L*D*L**H as computed by ZHPTRF, stored as a packed triangular matrix in the same storage format as A. If FACT = 'N', then AFP is an output argument and on exit contains the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**H or A = L*D*L**H as computed by ZHPTRF, stored as a packed triangular matrix in the same storage format as A.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N) If FACT = 'F', then IPIV is an input argument and on entry contains details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by ZHPTRF. If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'U' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and columns k-1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'L' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns k+1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block. If FACT = 'N', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit contains details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by ZHPTRF.

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) The N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*X*

X is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS) If INFO = 0 or INFO = N+1, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.

*LDX*

LDX is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

*RCOND*

RCOND is DOUBLE PRECISION The estimate of the reciprocal condition number of the matrix A. If RCOND is less than the machine precision (in particular, if RCOND = 0), the matrix is singular to working precision. This condition is indicated by a return code of INFO > 0.

*FERR*

FERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS) The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X). If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j) is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the largest element in X(j). The estimate is as reliable as the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight overestimate of the true error.

*BERR*

BERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS) The componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)

*RWORK*

RWORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, and i is <= N: D(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization has been completed but the factor D is exactly singular, so the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0 is returned. = N+1: D is nonsingular, but RCOND is less than machine precision, meaning that the matrix is singular to working precision. Nevertheless, the solution and error bounds are computed because there are a number of situations where the computed solution can be more accurate than the value of RCOND would suggest.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

The packed storage scheme is illustrated by the following example when N = 4, UPLO = 'U': Two-dimensional storage of the Hermitian matrix A: a11 a12 a13 a14 a22 a23 a24 a33 a34 (aij = conjg(aji)) a44 Packed storage of the upper triangle of A: AP = [ a11, a12, a22, a13, a23, a33, a14, a24, a34, a44 ]

## subroutine zpbsv (character UPLO, integer N, integer KD, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**ZPBSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZPBSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite band matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The Cholesky decomposition is used to factor A as A = U**H * U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular band matrix, and L is a lower triangular band matrix, with the same number of superdiagonals or subdiagonals as A. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*KD*

KD is INTEGER The number of superdiagonals of the matrix A if UPLO = 'U', or the number of subdiagonals if UPLO = 'L'. KD >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*AB*

AB is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDAB,N) On entry, the upper or lower triangle of the Hermitian band matrix A, stored in the first KD+1 rows of the array. The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the array AB as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AB(KD+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KD)<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AB(1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=min(N,j+KD). See below for further details. On exit, if INFO = 0, the triangular factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H *U or A = L*L**H of the band matrix A, in the same storage format as A.

*LDAB*

LDAB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KD+1.

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B. On exit, if INFO = 0, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, the leading minor of order i of A is not positive definite, so the factorization could not be completed, and the solution has not been computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

The band storage scheme is illustrated by the following example, when N = 6, KD = 2, and UPLO = 'U': On entry: On exit: * * a13 a24 a35 a46 * * u13 u24 u35 u46 * a12 a23 a34 a45 a56 * u12 u23 u34 u45 u56 a11 a22 a33 a44 a55 a66 u11 u22 u33 u44 u55 u66 Similarly, if UPLO = 'L' the format of A is as follows: On entry: On exit: a11 a22 a33 a44 a55 a66 l11 l22 l33 l44 l55 l66 a21 a32 a43 a54 a65 * l21 l32 l43 l54 l65 * a31 a42 a53 a64 * * l31 l42 l53 l64 * * Array elements marked * are not used by the routine.

## subroutine zpbsvx (character FACT, character UPLO, integer N, integer KD, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, complex*16, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB, character EQUED, double precision, dimension( * ) S, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex*16, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, double precision RCOND, double precision, dimension( * ) FERR, double precision, dimension( * ) BERR, complex*16, dimension( * ) WORK, double precision, dimension( * ) RWORK, integer INFO)¶

**ZPBSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZPBSVX uses the Cholesky factorization A = U**H*U or A = L*L**H to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite band matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided.

**Description:**

The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S) * A * diag(S) * inv(diag(S)) * X = diag(S) * B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the Cholesky decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U**H * U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular band matrix, and L is a lower triangular band matrix. 3. If the leading i-by-i principal minor is not positive definite, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(S) so that it solves the original system before equilibration.

**Parameters**

*FACT*

FACT is CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not the factored form of the matrix A is supplied on entry, and if not, whether the matrix A should be equilibrated before it is factored. = 'F': On entry, AFB contains the factored form of A. If EQUED = 'Y', the matrix A has been equilibrated with scaling factors given by S. AB and AFB will not be modified. = 'N': The matrix A will be copied to AFB and factored. = 'E': The matrix A will be equilibrated if necessary, then copied to AFB and factored.

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*KD*

KD is INTEGER The number of superdiagonals of the matrix A if UPLO = 'U', or the number of subdiagonals if UPLO = 'L'. KD >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER The number of right-hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

*AB*

AB is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDAB,N) On entry, the upper or lower triangle of the Hermitian band matrix A, stored in the first KD+1 rows of the array, except if FACT = 'F' and EQUED = 'Y', then A must contain the equilibrated matrix diag(S)*A*diag(S). The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the array AB as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AB(KD+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KD)<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AB(1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=min(N,j+KD). See below for further details. On exit, if FACT = 'E' and EQUED = 'Y', A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S).

*LDAB*

LDAB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array A. LDAB >= KD+1.

*AFB*

AFB is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDAFB,N) If FACT = 'F', then AFB is an input argument and on entry contains the triangular factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H *U or A = L*L**H of the band matrix A, in the same storage format as A (see AB). If EQUED = 'Y', then AFB is the factored form of the equilibrated matrix A. If FACT = 'N', then AFB is an output argument and on exit returns the triangular factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H *U or A = L*L**H. If FACT = 'E', then AFB is an output argument and on exit returns the triangular factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H *U or A = L*L**H of the equilibrated matrix A (see the description of A for the form of the equilibrated matrix).

*LDAFB*

LDAFB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= KD+1.

*EQUED*

EQUED is CHARACTER*1 Specifies the form of equilibration that was done. = 'N': No equilibration (always true if FACT = 'N'). = 'Y': Equilibration was done, i.e., A has been replaced by diag(S) * A * diag(S). EQUED is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, it is an output argument.

*S*

S is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) The scale factors for A; not accessed if EQUED = 'N'. S is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, S is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and EQUED = 'Y', each element of S must be positive.

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B. On exit, if EQUED = 'N', B is not modified; if EQUED = 'Y', B is overwritten by diag(S) * B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*X*

X is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS) If INFO = 0 or INFO = N+1, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X to the original system of equations. Note that if EQUED = 'Y', A and B are modified on exit, and the solution to the equilibrated system is inv(diag(S))*X.

*LDX*

LDX is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

*RCOND*

RCOND is DOUBLE PRECISION The estimate of the reciprocal condition number of the matrix A after equilibration (if done). If RCOND is less than the machine precision (in particular, if RCOND = 0), the matrix is singular to working precision. This condition is indicated by a return code of INFO > 0.

*FERR*

FERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS) The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X). If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j) is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the largest element in X(j). The estimate is as reliable as the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight overestimate of the true error.

*BERR*

BERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS) The componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)

*RWORK*

RWORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, and i is <= N: the leading minor of order i of A is not positive definite, so the factorization could not be completed, and the solution has not been computed. RCOND = 0 is returned. = N+1: U is nonsingular, but RCOND is less than machine precision, meaning that the matrix is singular to working precision. Nevertheless, the solution and error bounds are computed because there are a number of situations where the computed solution can be more accurate than the value of RCOND would suggest.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

The band storage scheme is illustrated by the following example, when N = 6, KD = 2, and UPLO = 'U': Two-dimensional storage of the Hermitian matrix A: a11 a12 a13 a22 a23 a24 a33 a34 a35 a44 a45 a46 a55 a56 (aij=conjg(aji)) a66 Band storage of the upper triangle of A: * * a13 a24 a35 a46 * a12 a23 a34 a45 a56 a11 a22 a33 a44 a55 a66 Similarly, if UPLO = 'L' the format of A is as follows: a11 a22 a33 a44 a55 a66 a21 a32 a43 a54 a65 * a31 a42 a53 a64 * * Array elements marked * are not used by the routine.

## subroutine zppsv (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( * ) AP, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**ZPPSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZPPSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The Cholesky decomposition is used to factor A as A = U**H * U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular matrix and L is a lower triangular matrix. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*AP*

AP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) On entry, the upper or lower triangle of the Hermitian matrix A, packed columnwise in a linear array. The j-th column of A is stored in the array AP as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AP(i + (j-1)*j/2) = A(i,j) for 1<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AP(i + (j-1)*(2n-j)/2) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=n. See below for further details. On exit, if INFO = 0, the factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H*U or A = L*L**H, in the same storage format as A.

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B. On exit, if INFO = 0, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, the leading minor of order i of A is not positive definite, so the factorization could not be completed, and the solution has not been computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

The packed storage scheme is illustrated by the following example when N = 4, UPLO = 'U': Two-dimensional storage of the Hermitian matrix A: a11 a12 a13 a14 a22 a23 a24 a33 a34 (aij = conjg(aji)) a44 Packed storage of the upper triangle of A: AP = [ a11, a12, a22, a13, a23, a33, a14, a24, a34, a44 ]

## subroutine zppsvx (character FACT, character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( * ) AP, complex*16, dimension( * ) AFP, character EQUED, double precision, dimension( * ) S, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex*16, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, double precision RCOND, double precision, dimension( * ) FERR, double precision, dimension( * ) BERR, complex*16, dimension( * ) WORK, double precision, dimension( * ) RWORK, integer INFO)¶

**ZPPSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZPPSVX uses the Cholesky factorization A = U**H * U or A = L * L**H to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided.

**Description:**

The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S) * A * diag(S) * inv(diag(S)) * X = diag(S) * B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the Cholesky decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U**H * U , if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular matrix, L is a lower triangular matrix, and **H indicates conjugate transpose. 3. If the leading i-by-i principal minor is not positive definite, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(S) so that it solves the original system before equilibration.

**Parameters**

*FACT*

FACT is CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not the factored form of the matrix A is supplied on entry, and if not, whether the matrix A should be equilibrated before it is factored. = 'F': On entry, AFP contains the factored form of A. If EQUED = 'Y', the matrix A has been equilibrated with scaling factors given by S. AP and AFP will not be modified. = 'N': The matrix A will be copied to AFP and factored. = 'E': The matrix A will be equilibrated if necessary, then copied to AFP and factored.

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

*AP*

AP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) On entry, the upper or lower triangle of the Hermitian matrix A, packed columnwise in a linear array, except if FACT = 'F' and EQUED = 'Y', then A must contain the equilibrated matrix diag(S)*A*diag(S). The j-th column of A is stored in the array AP as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AP(i + (j-1)*j/2) = A(i,j) for 1<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AP(i + (j-1)*(2n-j)/2) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=n. See below for further details. A is not modified if FACT = 'F' or 'N', or if FACT = 'E' and EQUED = 'N' on exit. On exit, if FACT = 'E' and EQUED = 'Y', A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S).

*AFP*

AFP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) If FACT = 'F', then AFP is an input argument and on entry contains the triangular factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H*U or A = L*L**H, in the same storage format as A. If EQUED .ne. 'N', then AFP is the factored form of the equilibrated matrix A. If FACT = 'N', then AFP is an output argument and on exit returns the triangular factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H * U or A = L * L**H of the original matrix A. If FACT = 'E', then AFP is an output argument and on exit returns the triangular factor U or L from the Cholesky factorization A = U**H * U or A = L * L**H of the equilibrated matrix A (see the description of AP for the form of the equilibrated matrix).

*EQUED*

EQUED is CHARACTER*1 Specifies the form of equilibration that was done. = 'N': No equilibration (always true if FACT = 'N'). = 'Y': Equilibration was done, i.e., A has been replaced by diag(S) * A * diag(S). EQUED is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, it is an output argument.

*S*

S is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) The scale factors for A; not accessed if EQUED = 'N'. S is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, S is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and EQUED = 'Y', each element of S must be positive.

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B. On exit, if EQUED = 'N', B is not modified; if EQUED = 'Y', B is overwritten by diag(S) * B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*X*

X is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS) If INFO = 0 or INFO = N+1, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X to the original system of equations. Note that if EQUED = 'Y', A and B are modified on exit, and the solution to the equilibrated system is inv(diag(S))*X.

*LDX*

LDX is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

*RCOND*

RCOND is DOUBLE PRECISION The estimate of the reciprocal condition number of the matrix A after equilibration (if done). If RCOND is less than the machine precision (in particular, if RCOND = 0), the matrix is singular to working precision. This condition is indicated by a return code of INFO > 0.

*FERR*

FERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS) The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X). If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j) is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the largest element in X(j). The estimate is as reliable as the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight overestimate of the true error.

*BERR*

BERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS) The componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)

*RWORK*

RWORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, and i is <= N: the leading minor of order i of A is not positive definite, so the factorization could not be completed, and the solution has not been computed. RCOND = 0 is returned. = N+1: U is nonsingular, but RCOND is less than machine precision, meaning that the matrix is singular to working precision. Nevertheless, the solution and error bounds are computed because there are a number of situations where the computed solution can be more accurate than the value of RCOND would suggest.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

## subroutine zspsv (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( * ) AP, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**ZSPSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZSPSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

*AP*

AP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) On entry, the upper or lower triangle of the symmetric matrix A, packed columnwise in a linear array. The j-th column of A is stored in the array AP as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AP(i + (j-1)*j/2) = A(i,j) for 1<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AP(i + (j-1)*(2n-j)/2) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=n. See below for further details. On exit, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T as computed by ZSPTRF, stored as a packed triangular matrix in the same storage format as A.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N) Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by ZSPTRF. If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were interchanged, and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'U' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and columns k-1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'L' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns k+1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*B*

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is exactly singular, so the solution could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

The packed storage scheme is illustrated by the following example when N = 4, UPLO = 'U': Two-dimensional storage of the symmetric matrix A: a11 a12 a13 a14 a22 a23 a24 a33 a34 (aij = aji) a44 Packed storage of the upper triangle of A: AP = [ a11, a12, a22, a13, a23, a33, a14, a24, a34, a44 ]

## subroutine zspsvx (character FACT, character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex*16, dimension( * ) AP, complex*16, dimension( * ) AFP, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex*16, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex*16, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, double precision RCOND, double precision, dimension( * ) FERR, double precision, dimension( * ) BERR, complex*16, dimension( * ) WORK, double precision, dimension( * ) RWORK, integer INFO)¶

**ZSPSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for OTHER matrices**

**Purpose:**

ZSPSVX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided.

**Description:**

The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'N', the diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices and D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 2. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 3. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 4. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it.

**Parameters**

*FACT*

FACT is CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not the factored form of A has been supplied on entry. = 'F': On entry, AFP and IPIV contain the factored form of A. AP, AFP and IPIV will not be modified. = 'N': The matrix A will be copied to AFP and factored.

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

*AP*

AP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) The upper or lower triangle of the symmetric matrix A, packed columnwise in a linear array. The j-th column of A is stored in the array AP as follows: if UPLO = 'U', AP(i + (j-1)*j/2) = A(i,j) for 1<=i<=j; if UPLO = 'L', AP(i + (j-1)*(2*n-j)/2) = A(i,j) for j<=i<=n. See below for further details.

*AFP*

AFP is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N*(N+1)/2) If FACT = 'F', then AFP is an input argument and on entry contains the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T as computed by ZSPTRF, stored as a packed triangular matrix in the same storage format as A. If FACT = 'N', then AFP is an output argument and on exit contains the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T as computed by ZSPTRF, stored as a packed triangular matrix in the same storage format as A.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N) If FACT = 'F', then IPIV is an input argument and on entry contains details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by ZSPTRF. If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'U' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and columns k-1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'L' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns k+1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block. If FACT = 'N', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit contains details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by ZSPTRF.

*B*

B is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) The N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*X*

X is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS) If INFO = 0 or INFO = N+1, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.

*LDX*

LDX is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

*RCOND*

RCOND is DOUBLE PRECISION The estimate of the reciprocal condition number of the matrix A. If RCOND is less than the machine precision (in particular, if RCOND = 0), the matrix is singular to working precision. This condition is indicated by a return code of INFO > 0.

*FERR*

*BERR*

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)

*RWORK*

RWORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value > 0: if INFO = i, and i is <= N: D(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization has been completed but the factor D is exactly singular, so the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0 is returned. = N+1: D is nonsingular, but RCOND is less than machine precision, meaning that the matrix is singular to working precision. Nevertheless, the solution and error bounds are computed because there are a number of situations where the computed solution can be more accurate than the value of RCOND would suggest.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Date**

**Further Details:**

The packed storage scheme is illustrated by the following example when N = 4, UPLO = 'U': Two-dimensional storage of the symmetric matrix A: a11 a12 a13 a14 a22 a23 a24 a33 a34 (aij = aji) a44 Packed storage of the upper triangle of A: AP = [ a11, a12, a22, a13, a23, a33, a14, a24, a34, a44 ]

# Author¶

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