last, lastb - show listing of last logged in users
] [ - n num
] [ - f file
] [ - t
] [ - n num
] [ -
searches back through the file /var/log/wtmp
(or the file
designated by the -f
flag) and displays a list of all users logged in
(and out) since that file was created. Names of users and tty's can be given,
in which case last
will show only those entries matching the arguments.
Names of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last 0
is the same as
catches a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key,
usually control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal (generated by the quit key, usually
will show how far it has searched through the file; in
the case of the SIGINT signal last
will then terminate.
The pseudo user reboot
logs in each time the system is rebooted. Thus
will show a log of all reboots since the log file was
is the same as last
, except that by default it shows a log
of the file /var/log/btmp
, which contains all the bad login attempts.
- -f file
- Tells last to use a specific file instead of
- This is a count telling last how many lines to show.
- -n num
- The same.
- -t YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
- Display the state of logins as of the specified time. This is useful,
e.g., to determine easily who was logged in at a particular time --
specify that time with -t and look for "still logged
- Suppresses the display of the hostname field.
- Display the hostname in the last column. Useful in combination with the
- For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the remote
host but its IP number as well. This option translates the IP number back
into a hostname.
- Print full login and logout times and dates.
- This option is like -d in that it displays the IP number of the
remote host, but it displays the IP number in numbers-and-dots
- Read an old-type wtmp file (written by linux-libc5 applications).
- Display full user and domain names in the output.
- Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.
The files wtmp
might not be found. The system only logs
information in these files if they are present. This is a local configuration
issue. If you want the files to be used, they can be created with a simple
command (for example, touch /var/log/wtmp
Miquel van Smoorenburg, firstname.lastname@example.org