|CHROOT(2)||Linux Programmer's Manual||CHROOT(2)|
NAME¶chroot - change root directory
SYNOPSIS¶#include <unistd.h> int chroot(const char *path);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
- Since glibc 2.2.2:
_BSD_SOURCE || (_XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 || _XOPEN_SOURCE && _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED) && !(_POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600)
Before glibc 2.2.2: none
DESCRIPTION¶chroot() changes the root directory of the calling process to that specified in path. This directory will be used for pathnames beginning with /. The root directory is inherited by all children of the calling process. Only a privileged process (Linux: one with the CAP_SYS_CHROOT capability) may call chroot(). This call changes an ingredient in the pathname resolution process and does nothing else. This call does not change the current working directory, so that after the call ' .' can be outside the tree rooted at ' /'. In particular, the superuser can escape from a "chroot jail" by doing:
mkdir foo; chroot foo; cd ..This call does not close open file descriptors, and such file descriptors may allow access to files outside the chroot tree.
RETURN VALUE¶On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
ERRORS¶Depending on the filesystem, other errors can be returned. The more general errors are listed below:
- Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix. (See also path_resolution(7).)
- path points outside your accessible address space.
- An I/O error occurred.
- Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path.
- path is too long.
- The file does not exist.
- Insufficient kernel memory was available.
- A component of path is not a directory.
- The caller has insufficient privilege.
CONFORMING TO¶SVr4, 4.4BSD, SUSv2 (marked LEGACY). This function is not part of POSIX.1-2001.
NOTES¶A child process created via fork(2) inherits its parent's root directory. The root directory is left unchanged by execve(2). FreeBSD has a stronger jail() system call.
SEE ALSO¶chdir(2), path_resolution(7)
COLOPHON¶This page is part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.