## table of contents

i.ortho.init(1grass) | GRASS GIS User's Manual | i.ortho.init(1grass) |

# NAME¶

**i.ortho.init** - Interactively creates or modifies
entries in a camera initial exposure station file for imagery group
referenced by a sub-block.

# KEYWORDS¶

imagery, orthorectify

# SYNOPSIS¶

**i.ortho.init**

**i.ortho.init --help**

**i.ortho.init** [-**rp**] **group**=*name*
[**xc**=*float*] [**yc**=*float*] [**zc**=*float*]
[**xc_sd**=*float*] [**yc_sd**=*float*]
[**zc_sd**=*float*] [**omega**=*float*]
[**phi**=*float*] [**kappa**=*float*]
[**omega_sd**=*float*] [**phi_sd**=*float*]
[**kappa_sd**=*float*] [--**help**] [--**verbose**]
[--**quiet**] [--**ui**]

## Flags:¶

## Parameters:¶

**group**=*name***[required]**-

Name of imagery group for ortho-rectification **xc**=*float*-

Initial Camera Exposure X-coordinate **yc**=*float*-

Initial Camera Exposure Y-coordinate **zc**=*float*-

Initial Camera Exposure Z-coordinate **xc_sd**=*float*-

Apriori X-coordinate standard deviation **yc_sd**=*float*-

Apriori Y-coordinate standard deviation **zc_sd**=*float*-

Apriori Z-coordinate standard deviation **omega**=*float*-

Initial Camera Omega (pitch) degrees **phi**=*float*-

Initial Camera Phi (roll) degrees **kappa**=*float*-

Initial Camera Kappa (yaw) degrees **omega_sd**=*float*-

Apriori Omega (pitch) standard deviation **phi_sd**=*float*-

Apriori Phi (roll) standard deviation **kappa_sd**=*float*-

Apriori Kappa (yaw) standard deviation

# DESCRIPTION¶

Aerial photographs may be either vertical or oblique. Vertical
photographs can be truly vertical (nadir), or slightly tilted (less than 3
degree from the vertical). Usually aerial photos are tilted to some degree.
We refer to the term *vertical photograph* up to a tilt of 3 degree.

Oblique aerial photographs are purposely taken with an angle between 3 and 90
degree from the nadir direction.

**The use of ***i.ortho.init* (menu 6) is only required
when rectifying a tilted or oblique aerial photo.

*i.ortho.init* creates or modifies entries in a camera
initial exposure station file for imagery group referenced by a sub-block.
These entries include: the (XC,YC,ZC) standard (e.g. UTM) approximate
coordinates of the camera exposure station; initial roll, pitch, and yaw
angles (in degrees) of the cameras attitude; and the *a priori*
standard deviations for these parameters. During the imagery program,
*i.photo.rectify*, the initial camera exposure station file is used for
computation of the ortho-rectification parameters. If no initial camera
exposure station file exist, the default values are computed from the
control points file created in *g.gui.image2target*.

The following menu is displayed:

Please provide the following information INITIAL XC: Meters __________ INITIAL YC: Meters __________ INITIAL ZC: Meters __________ INITIAL omega (pitch) degrees: __________ INITIAL phi (roll) degrees: __________ INITIAL kappa (yaw) degrees: __________ Standard Deviation XC: Meters __________ Standard Deviation YC: Meters __________ Standard Deviation ZC: Meters __________ Std. Dev. omega (pitch) degrees: __________ Std. Dev. phi (roll) degrees: __________ Std. Dev. kappa (yaw) degrees: __________

Use these values at run time? (1=yes, 0=no)

AFTER COMPLETING ALL ANSWERS, HIT <ESC> TO CONTINUE

(OR <Ctrl-C> TO CANCEL)

The INITIAL values for (XC,YC,ZC) are expressed in standard (e.g. UTM) coordinates, and represent an approximation for the location of the camera at the time of exposure.

- X: East aircraft position;
- Y: North aircraft position;
- Z: Flight altitude above sea level

The INITIAL values for (omega,phi,kappa) are expressed in degrees, and represent an approximation for the cameras attitude at the time of exposure.

- Omega (pitch): Raising or lowering of the aircraft’s front (turning around the wings’ axis);
- Phi (roll): Raising or lowering of the wings (turning around the aircraft’s axis);
- Kappa (yaw): Rotation needed to align the aerial photo to true north: needs to be denoted as +90 degree for clockwise turn and -90 degree for a counterclockwise turn.

If ground control points are available, the INITIAL values are iteratively corrected. This is particularl useful when the INITIAL values are rather rough estimates.

The standard deviations for (XC,YC,ZC) are expressed in meters,
and are used as *a priori* values for the standard deviations used in
computation of the ortho rectification parameters. Higher values improve the
refinement of the initial camera exposure. As a rule of thumb, 5% of the
estimated target extents should be used.

The standard deviations for (omega,phi,kappa) are expressed in
degrees, and are used as *a priori* values for the standard deviations
used in computation of the ortho rectification parameters. As a rule of
thumb, 2 degrees should be used.

If *Use these values at run time? (1=yes, 0=no)* is set to 0,
the values in this menu are not used.

# SEE ALSO¶

*i.ortho.photo,* *g.gui.photo2image,*
*g.gui.image2target,* *i.ortho.elev,* *i.ortho.camera,*
*i.ortho.transform,* *i.photo.rectify*

# AUTHOR¶

Mike Baba, DBA Systems, Inc.

# SOURCE CODE¶

Available at: i.ortho.init source code (history)

Accessed: Saturday Jul 27 17:09:06 2024

Main index | Imagery index | Topics index | Keywords index | Graphical index | Full index

© 2003-2024 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 8.4.0 Reference Manual

GRASS 8.4.0 |