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gdal2tiles - Generates directory with TMS tiles, KMLs and simple web viewers.

SYNOPSIS [-p profile] [-r resampling] [-s srs] [-z zoom]
              [-e] [-a nodata] [-v] [-q] [-h] [-k] [-n] [-u url]
              [-w webviewer] [-t title] [-c copyright]
              [--processes=NB_PROCESSES] [--xyz]
              [-g googlekey] [-b bingkey] input_file [output_dir]


This utility generates a directory with small tiles and metadata, following the OSGeo Tile Map Service Specification. Simple web pages with viewers based on Google Maps, OpenLayers and Leaflet are generated as well - so anybody can comfortably explore your maps on-line and you do not need to install or configure any special software (like MapServer) and the map displays very fast in the web browser. You only need to upload the generated directory onto a web server.

GDAL2Tiles also creates the necessary metadata for Google Earth (KML SuperOverlay), in case the supplied map uses EPSG:4326 projection.

World files and embedded georeferencing is used during tile generation, but you can publish a picture without proper georeferencing too.


Inputs with non-Byte data type (i.e. Int16, UInt16,...) will be clamped to the Byte data type, causing wrong results. To awoid this it is necessary to rescale input to the Byte data type using gdal_translate utility.

-p <PROFILE>, --profile=<PROFILE>
Tile cutting profile (mercator, geodetic, raster) - default 'mercator' (Google Maps compatible).

Starting with GDAL 3.2, additional profiles are available from tms_XXXX.json files placed in GDAL data directory (provided all zoom levels use same origin, tile dimensions, and resolution between consecutive zoom levels vary by a factor of two).

-r <RESAMPLING>, --resampling=<RESAMPLING>
Resampling method (average, near, bilinear, cubic, cubicspline, lanczos, antialias, mode, max, min, med, q1, q3) - default 'average'.

-s <SRS>, --s_srs=<SRS>
The spatial reference system used for the source input data.

Generate XYZ tiles (OSM Slippy Map standard) instead of TMS. In the default mode (TMS), tiles at y=0 are the southern-most tiles, whereas in XYZ mode (used by OGC WMTS too), tiles at y=0 are the northern-most tiles.

New in version 3.1.

-z <ZOOM>, --zoom=<ZOOM>
Zoom levels to render (format:'2-5' or '10').

-e, --resume
Resume mode. Generate only missing files.

-a <NODATA>, --srcnodata=<NODATA>
Value in the input dataset considered as transparent. If the input dataset had already an associate nodata value, it is overridden by the specified value.

-v, --verbose
Generate verbose output of tile generation.

-q, --quiet
Disable messages and status to stdout

New in version 2.1.

Number of parallel processes to use for tiling, to speed-up the computation.

New in version 2.3.

Width and height in pixel of a tile. Default is 256.

New in version 3.1.

-h, --help
Show help message and exit.

Show program's version number and exit.

KML (Google Earth) options

Options for generated Google Earth SuperOverlay metadata
-k, --force-kml
Generate KML for Google Earth - default for 'geodetic' profile and 'raster' in EPSG:4326. For a dataset with different projection use with caution!

-n, --no-kml
Avoid automatic generation of KML files for EPSG:4326.

-u <URL>, --url=<URL>
URL address where the generated tiles are going to be published.

Web viewer options

Options for generated HTML viewers a la Google Maps
-w <WEBVIEWER>, --webviewer=<WEBVIEWER>
Web viewer to generate (all, google, openlayers, leaflet, mapml, none) - default 'all'.

-t <TITLE>, --title=<TITLE>
Title of the map.

-c <COPYRIGHT>, --copyright=<COPYRIGHT>
Copyright for the map.

-g <GOOGLEKEY>, --googlekey=<GOOGLEKEY>
Google Maps API key from

-b <BINGKEY>, --bingkey=<BINGKEY>
Bing Maps API key from

NOTE: is a Python script that needs to be run against Python GDAL binding.

MapML options

MapML support is new to GDAL 3.2. When --webviewer=mapml is specified, --xyz is implied, as well as --tmscompatible if --profile=geodetic.

The following profiles are supported:

  • mercator: mapped to OSMTILE MapML tiling scheme
  • geodetic: mapped to WGS84 MapML tiling scheme
  • APSTILE: from the tms_MapML_APSTILE.json data file
  • CBMTILE: from the tms_MapML_CBMTILE.json data file

The generated MapML file in the output directory is mapml.mapl

Available options are:

Filename of a template mapml file where variables will be substituted. If not specified, the generic template_tiles.mapml file from GDAL data resources will be used

The --url option is also used to substitue ${URL} in the template MapML file.


Basic example: --zoom=2-5 input.tif output_folder

MapML generation: --zoom=16-18 -w mapml -p APSTILE --url "" input.tif output_folder


Klokan Petr Pridal <>


October 26, 2020