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Email::Sender::Transport::Test(3pm) User Contributed Perl Documentation Email::Sender::Transport::Test(3pm)


Email::Sender::Transport::Test - deliver mail in memory for testing


version 1.300035


This transport is meant for testing email deliveries in memory. It will store a record of any delivery made so that they can be inspected afterward.



By default, the Test transport will not allow partial success and will always succeed. It can be made to fail predictably, however, if it is extended and its "recipient_failure" or "delivery_failure" methods are overridden. These methods are called as follows:

  $self->delivery_failure($email, $envelope);

If they return true, the sending will fail. If the transport was created with a true "allow_partial_success" attribute, recipient failures can cause partial success to be returned.

For more flexible failure modes, you can override more aggressively or can use Email::Sender::Transport::Failable.

This attribute stores an arrayref of all the deliveries made via the transport. The "clear_deliveries" method returns a list of them.

Each delivery is a hashref, in the following format:

    email     => $email,
    envelope  => $envelope,
    successes => \@ok_rcpts,
    failures  => \@failures,

Both successful and failed deliveries are stored.

A number of methods related to this attribute are provided:

  • delivery_count
  • clear_deliveries
  • shift_deliveries


Ricardo Signes <>


This software is copyright (c) 2020 by Ricardo Signes.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

2020-10-15 perl v5.30.3