GeodesicProj -- perform projections based on geodesics
GeodesicProj ( -z | -c | -g ) lat0 lon0 [ -r ] [ -e a f ] [ -w ] [ -p prec ] [ --comment-delimiter commentdelim ] [ --version | -h | --help ] [ --input-file infile | --input-string instring ] [ --line-separator linesep ] [ --output-file outfile ]
Perform projections based on geodesics. Convert geodetic coordinates to either azimuthal equidistant, Cassini-Soldner, or gnomonic coordinates. The center of the projection (lat0, lon0) is specified by either the -c option (for Cassini-Soldner), the -z option (for azimuthal equidistant), or the -g option (for gnomonic). At least one of these options must be given (the last one given is used).
Geodetic coordinates are provided on standard input as a set of lines containing (blank separated) latitude and longitude (decimal degrees or degrees, minutes, seconds); for details on the allowed formats for latitude and longitude, see the "GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES" section of GeoConvert(1). For each set of geodetic coordinates, the corresponding projected coordinates x, y (meters) are printed on standard output together with the azimuth azi (degrees) and reciprocal scale rk. For Cassini-Soldner, azi is the bearing of the easting direction and the scale in the easting direction is 1 and the scale in the northing direction is 1/rk. For azimuthal equidistant and gnomonic, azi is the bearing of the radial direction and the scale in the azimuthal direction is 1/rk. For azimuthal equidistant and gnomonic, the scales in the radial direction are 1 and 1/rk^2, respectively.
- -z lat0 lon0
- use the azimuthal equidistant projection centered at latitude = lat0, longitude = lon0. The -w flag can be used to swap the default order of the 2 coordinates, provided that it appears before -z.
- -c lat0 lon0
- use the Cassini-Soldner projection centered at latitude = lat0, longitude = lon0. The -w flag can be used to swap the default order of the 2 coordinates, provided that it appears before -c.
- -g lat0 lon0
- use the ellipsoidal gnomonic projection centered at latitude = lat0, longitude = lon0. The -w flag can be used to swap the default order of the 2 coordinates, provided that it appears before -g.
- perform the reverse projection. x and y are given on standard input and each line of standard output gives latitude, longitude, azi, and rk.
- -e a f
- specify the ellipsoid via the equatorial radius, a and the flattening, f. Setting f = 0 results in a sphere. Specify f < 0 for a prolate ellipsoid. A simple fraction, e.g., 1/297, is allowed for f. By default, the WGS84 ellipsoid is used, a = 6378137 m, f = 1/298.257223563.
- toggle the longitude first flag (it starts off); if the flag is on, then on input and output, longitude precedes latitude (except that, on input, this can be overridden by a hemisphere designator, N, S, E, W).
- -p prec
- set the output precision to prec (default 6). prec is the number of digits after the decimal point for lengths (in meters). For latitudes, longitudes, and azimuths (in degrees), the number of digits after the decimal point is prec + 5. For the scale, the number of digits after the decimal point is prec + 6.
- --comment-delimiter commentdelim
- set the comment delimiter to commentdelim (e.g., "#" or "//"). If set, the input lines will be scanned for this delimiter and, if found, the delimiter and the rest of the line will be removed prior to processing and subsequently appended to the output line (separated by a space).
- print version and exit.
- print usage and exit.
- print full documentation and exit.
- --input-file infile
- read input from the file infile instead of from standard input; a file name of "-" stands for standard input.
- --input-string instring
- read input from the string instring instead of from standard input. All occurrences of the line separator character (default is a semicolon) in instring are converted to newlines before the reading begins.
- --line-separator linesep
- set the line separator character to linesep. By default this is a semicolon.
- --output-file outfile
- write output to the file outfile instead of to standard output; a file name of "-" stands for standard output.
echo 48.648 -2.007 | GeodesicProj -c 48.836 2.337 => -319919 -11791 86.7 0.999 echo -319919 -11791 | GeodesicProj -c 48.836 2.337 -r => 48.648 -2.007 86.7 0.999
An illegal line of input will print an error message to standard output beginning with "ERROR:" and causes GeodesicProj to return an exit code of 1. However, an error does not cause GeodesicProj to terminate; following lines will be converted.
The ellipsoidal gnomonic projection is derived in Section 8 of C. F. F. Karney, Algorithms for geodesics, J. Geodesy 87, 43-55 (2013); DOI <https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-012-0578-z>; addenda: <https://geographiclib.sourceforge.io/geod-addenda.html>.
GeodesicProj was written by Charles Karney.
GeodesicProj was added to GeographicLib, <https://geographiclib.sourceforge.io>, in 2009-08. Prior to version 1.9 it was called EquidistantTest.