init - Upstart process management daemon
is the parent of all processes on the system, it is executed by the
kernel and is responsible for starting all other processes; it is the parent
of all processes whose natural parents have died and it is responsible for
reaping those when they die.
Processes managed by init
are known as jobs and are defined by files in
directory. See init(5)
for more details on
is an event-based init daemon. This means that jobs will be
automatically started and stopped by changes that occur to the system state,
including as a result of jobs starting and stopping.
This is different to dependency-based init daemons which start a specified set
of goal jobs, and resolve the order in which they should be started and other
jobs required by iterating their dependencies.
For more information on starting and stopping jobs, as well as emitting events
that will automatically start and stop jobs, see the manual page for the
The primary event is the startup(7)
event, emitted when the daemon has
finished loading its configuration. Other useful events are the
events emitted as jobs change state.
for a summary of well-known events.
System V compatibility¶
The Upstart init(8)
daemon does not keep track of runlevels itself,
instead they are implemented entirely by its userspace tools. The event
emitted to signify a change of runlevel is the runlevel(7)
more information see its manual page.
Options are passed to init(8)
by placing them on the kernel command-line.
- --confdir directory
- Read job configuration files from a directory other than
- --default-console value
- Default value for jobs that do not specify a
'console' stanza. This could be used for example to set the default
to ' none' but still honour jobs that specify explicitly '
console log'. See init(5) for all possible values of
- --logdir directory
- Write job output log files to a directory other than
- Disable logging of job output. Note that jobs specifying
'console log' will be treated as if they had specified '
console none'. See init(5) for further details.
- Disable user and chroot sessions.
- Suppress emission of the initial startup event. This option
should only be used for testing since it will stop the init(8)
daemon from starting any jobs automatically.
- Connect to the D-Bus session bus. This should only be used
- --startup-event event
- Specify a different initial startup event from the standard
- Outputs verbose messages about job state changes and event
emissions to the system console or log, useful for debugging boot.
is not normally executed by a user process, and expects to have a
process id of 1. If this is not the case, it will actually execute
and pass all arguments to that. See that manual page for
Written by Scott James Remnant <email@example.com
Report bugs at <https://launchpad.net/upstart/+bugs
Copyright © 2009-2011 Canonical Ltd.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
control-alt-delete(7) init(5) initctl(8) runlevel(7)
startup(7) starting(7) started(7) stopping(7)
stopped(7) telinit(8) upstart-events(7)