table of contents
|WAIT(2)||System Calls Manual||WAIT(2)|
NAME¶wait, waitpid, wait4, wait3 — wait for process termination
LIBRARY¶Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
#include <sys/wait.h> pid_t
wait(int *status); #include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/resource.h> pid_t
waitpid(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options); pid_t
wait3(int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage); pid_t
wait4(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage);
DESCRIPTION¶The wait() function suspends execution of its calling process until status information is available for a terminated child process, or a signal is received. On return from a successful wait() call, the status area contains termination information about the process that exited as defined below. The wait4() system call provides a more general interface for programs that need to wait for certain child processes, that need resource utilization statistics accumulated by child processes, or that require options. The other wait functions are implemented using wait4(). The wpid argument specifies the set of child processes for which to wait. If wpid is -1, the call waits for any child process. If wpid is 0, the call waits for any child process in the process group of the caller. If wpid is greater than zero, the call waits for the process with process id wpid. If wpid is less than -1, the call waits for any process whose process group id equals the absolute value of wpid. The status argument is defined below. The options argument contains the bitwise OR of any of the following options. The
WCONTINUEDoption indicates that children of the current process that have continued from a job control stop, by receiving a
SIGCONTsignal, should also have their status reported. The
WNOHANGoption is used to indicate that the call should not block if there are no processes that wish to report status. If the
WUNTRACEDoption is set, children of the current process that are stopped due to a
SIGSTOPsignal also have their status reported. The
WSTOPPEDoption is an alias for
WNOWAIToption keeps the process whose status is returned in a waitable state. The process may be waited for again after this call completes. If rusage is non-zero, a summary of the resources used by the terminated process and all its children is returned (this information is currently not available for stopped or continued processes). When the
WNOHANGoption is specified and no processes wish to report status, wait4() returns a process id of 0. The waitpid() function is identical to wait4() with an rusage value of zero. The older wait3() call is the same as wait4() with a wpid value of -1. The following macros may be used to test the manner of exit of the process. One of the first three macros will evaluate to a non-zero (true) value:
- True if the process has not terminated, and has continued
after a job control stop. This macro can be true only if the wait call
- True if the process terminated normally by a call to _exit(2) or exit(3).
- True if the process terminated due to receipt of a signal.
- True if the process has not terminated, but has stopped and
can be restarted. This macro can be true only if the wait call specified
WUNTRACEDoption or if the child process is being traced (see ptrace(2)).
- If WIFEXITED(status) is true, evaluates to the low-order 8 bits of the argument passed to _exit(2) or exit(3) by the child.
- If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the termination of the process.
- If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates as true if the termination of the process was accompanied by the creation of a core file containing an image of the process when the signal was received.
- If WIFSTOPPED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the process to stop.
NOTES¶See sigaction(2) for a list of termination signals. A status of 0 indicates normal termination. If a parent process terminates without waiting for all of its child processes to terminate, the remaining child processes are assigned the parent process 1 ID (the init process ID). If a signal is caught while any of the wait() calls are pending, the call may be interrupted or restarted when the signal-catching routine returns, depending on the options in effect for the signal; see discussion of
SA_RESTARTin sigaction(2). The implementation queues one
SIGCHLDsignal for each child process whose status has changed, if wait() returns because the status of a child process is available, the pending SIGCHLD signal associated with the process ID of the child process will be discarded. Any other pending
SIGCHLDsignals remain pending. If
SIGCHLDis blocked, wait() returns because the status of a child process is available, the pending
SIGCHLDsignal will be cleared unless another status of the child process is available.
RETURN VALUES¶If wait() returns due to a stopped, continued, or terminated child process, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling process. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error. If wait4(), wait3(), or waitpid() returns due to a stopped, continued, or terminated child process, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling process. If there are no children not previously awaited, -1 is returned with errno set to
ECHILD. Otherwise, if
WNOHANGis specified and there are no stopped, continued or exited children, 0 is returned. If an error is detected or a caught signal aborts the call, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.
ERRORS¶The wait() function will fail and return immediately if:
- The calling process has no existing unwaited-for child processes.
- No status from the terminated child process is available
because the calling process has asked the system to discard such status by
ignoring the signal
SIGCHLDor setting the flag
SA_NOCLDWAITfor that signal.
- The status or rusage argument points to an illegal address. (May not be detected before exit of a child process.)
- The call was interrupted by a caught signal, or the signal
did not have the
SEE ALSO¶_exit(2), ptrace(2), sigaction(2), exit(3), siginfo(3)
STANDARDS¶The wait() and waitpid() functions are defined by POSIX; wait4() and wait3() are not specified by POSIX. The WCOREDUMP() macro and the ability to restart a pending wait() call are extensions to the POSIX interface.
HISTORY¶The wait() function appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.
|November 12, 2005||Debian|