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realGBsolve(3) LAPACK realGBsolve(3)

NAME

realGBsolve - real

SYNOPSIS

Functions


subroutine sgbsv (N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, IPIV, B, LDB, INFO)
SGBSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for GB matrices (simple driver) subroutine sgbsvx (FACT, TRANS, N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, IPIV, EQUED, R, C, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, FERR, BERR, WORK, IWORK, INFO)
SGBSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for GB matrices subroutine sgbsvxx (FACT, TRANS, N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, IPIV, EQUED, R, C, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, RPVGRW, BERR, N_ERR_BNDS, ERR_BNDS_NORM, ERR_BNDS_COMP, NPARAMS, PARAMS, WORK, IWORK, INFO)
SGBSVXX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for GB matrices

Detailed Description

This is the group of real solve driver functions for GB matrices

Function Documentation

subroutine sgbsv (integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NRHS, real, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, real, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)

SGBSV computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for GB matrices (simple driver)

Purpose:


SGBSV computes the solution to a real system of linear equations
A * X = B, where A is a band matrix of order N with KL subdiagonals
and KU superdiagonals, and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices.
The LU decomposition with partial pivoting and row interchanges is
used to factor A as A = L * U, where L is a product of permutation
and unit lower triangular matrices with KL subdiagonals, and U is
upper triangular with KL+KU superdiagonals. The factored form of A
is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B.

Parameters

N


N is INTEGER
The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

NRHS


NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

AB


AB is REAL array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows KL+1 to
2*KL+KU+1; rows 1 to KL of the array need not be set.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(KL+KU+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KU)<=i<=min(N,j+KL)
On exit, details of the factorization: U is stored as an
upper triangular band matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in
rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and the multipliers used during the
factorization are stored in rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.
See below for further details.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices that define the permutation matrix P;
row i of the matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).

B


B is REAL array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
On exit, if INFO = 0, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0: if INFO = i, U(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization
has been completed, but the factor U is exactly
singular, and the solution has not been computed.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

Further Details:


The band storage scheme is illustrated by the following example, when
M = N = 6, KL = 2, KU = 1:
On entry: On exit:
* * * + + + * * * u14 u25 u36
* * + + + + * * u13 u24 u35 u46
* a12 a23 a34 a45 a56 * u12 u23 u34 u45 u56
a11 a22 a33 a44 a55 a66 u11 u22 u33 u44 u55 u66
a21 a32 a43 a54 a65 * m21 m32 m43 m54 m65 *
a31 a42 a53 a64 * * m31 m42 m53 m64 * *
Array elements marked * are not used by the routine; elements marked
+ need not be set on entry, but are required by the routine to store
elements of U because of fill-in resulting from the row interchanges.

subroutine sgbsvx (character FACT, character TRANS, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NRHS, real, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, real, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, character EQUED, real, dimension( * ) R, real, dimension( * ) C, real, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, real, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, real RCOND, real, dimension( * ) FERR, real, dimension( * ) BERR, real, dimension( * ) WORK, integer, dimension( * ) IWORK, integer INFO)

SGBSVX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for GB matrices

Purpose:


SGBSVX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a real
system of linear equations A * X = B, A**T * X = B, or A**H * X = B,
where A is a band matrix of order N with KL subdiagonals and KU
superdiagonals, and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices.
Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also
provided.

Description:


The following steps are performed by this subroutine:
1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate
the system:
TRANS = 'N': diag(R)*A*diag(C) *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B
TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the
scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is
overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N')
or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C').
2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the
matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as
A = L * U,
where L is a product of permutation and unit lower triangular
matrices with KL subdiagonals, and U is upper triangular with
KL+KU superdiagonals.
3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the routine
returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used
to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the
reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision,
INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on
to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below.
4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form
of A.
5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution
matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates
for it.
6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by
diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so
that it solves the original system before equilibration.

Parameters

FACT


FACT is CHARACTER*1
Specifies whether or not the factored form of the matrix A is
supplied on entry, and if not, whether the matrix A should be
equilibrated before it is factored.
= 'F': On entry, AFB and IPIV contain the factored form of
A. If EQUED is not 'N', the matrix A has been
equilibrated with scaling factors given by R and C.
AB, AFB, and IPIV are not modified.
= 'N': The matrix A will be copied to AFB and factored.
= 'E': The matrix A will be equilibrated if necessary, then
copied to AFB and factored.

TRANS


TRANS is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of the system of equations.
= 'N': A * X = B (No transpose)
= 'T': A**T * X = B (Transpose)
= 'C': A**H * X = B (Transpose)

N


N is INTEGER
The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

NRHS


NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

AB


AB is REAL array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(KU+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KU)<=i<=min(N,j+kl)
If FACT = 'F' and EQUED is not 'N', then A must have been
equilibrated by the scaling factors in R and/or C. AB is not
modified if FACT = 'F' or 'N', or if FACT = 'E' and
EQUED = 'N' on exit.
On exit, if EQUED .ne. 'N', A is scaled as follows:
EQUED = 'R': A := diag(R) * A
EQUED = 'C': A := A * diag(C)
EQUED = 'B': A := diag(R) * A * diag(C).

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

AFB


AFB is REAL array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
If FACT = 'F', then AFB is an input argument and on entry
contains details of the LU factorization of the band matrix
A, as computed by SGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular
band matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1,
and the multipliers used during the factorization are stored
in rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1. If EQUED .ne. 'N', then AFB is
the factored form of the equilibrated matrix A.
If FACT = 'N', then AFB is an output argument and on exit
returns details of the LU factorization of A.
If FACT = 'E', then AFB is an output argument and on exit
returns details of the LU factorization of the equilibrated
matrix A (see the description of AB for the form of the
equilibrated matrix).

LDAFB


LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
If FACT = 'F', then IPIV is an input argument and on entry
contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = L*U
as computed by SGBTRF; row i of the matrix was interchanged
with row IPIV(i).
If FACT = 'N', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = L*U
of the original matrix A.
If FACT = 'E', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = L*U
of the equilibrated matrix A.

EQUED


EQUED is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of equilibration that was done.
= 'N': No equilibration (always true if FACT = 'N').
= 'R': Row equilibration, i.e., A has been premultiplied by
diag(R).
= 'C': Column equilibration, i.e., A has been postmultiplied
by diag(C).
= 'B': Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been
replaced by diag(R) * A * diag(C).
EQUED is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, it is an
output argument.

R


R is REAL array, dimension (N)
The row scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'R' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the left by diag(R); if EQUED = 'N' or 'C', R
is not accessed. R is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, R is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'R' or 'B', each element of R must be positive.

C


C is REAL array, dimension (N)
The column scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'C' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the right by diag(C); if EQUED = 'N' or 'R', C
is not accessed. C is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, C is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'C' or 'B', each element of C must be positive.

B


B is REAL array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
On entry, the right hand side matrix B.
On exit,
if EQUED = 'N', B is not modified;
if TRANS = 'N' and EQUED = 'R' or 'B', B is overwritten by
diag(R)*B;
if TRANS = 'T' or 'C' and EQUED = 'C' or 'B', B is
overwritten by diag(C)*B.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

X


X is REAL array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
If INFO = 0 or INFO = N+1, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X
to the original system of equations. Note that A and B are
modified on exit if EQUED .ne. 'N', and the solution to the
equilibrated system is inv(diag(C))*X if TRANS = 'N' and
EQUED = 'C' or 'B', or inv(diag(R))*X if TRANS = 'T' or 'C'
and EQUED = 'R' or 'B'.

LDX


LDX is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

RCOND


RCOND is REAL
The estimate of the reciprocal condition number of the matrix
A after equilibration (if done). If RCOND is less than the
machine precision (in particular, if RCOND = 0), the matrix
is singular to working precision. This condition is
indicated by a return code of INFO > 0.

FERR


FERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)
The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector
X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X).
If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j)
is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest
element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the
largest element in X(j). The estimate is as reliable as
the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight
overestimate of the true error.

BERR


BERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)
The componentwise relative backward error of each solution
vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in
any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).

WORK


WORK is REAL array, dimension (3*N)
On exit, WORK(1) contains the reciprocal pivot growth
factor norm(A)/norm(U). The "max absolute element" norm is
used. If WORK(1) is much less than 1, then the stability
of the LU factorization of the (equilibrated) matrix A
could be poor. This also means that the solution X, condition
estimator RCOND, and forward error bound FERR could be
unreliable. If factorization fails with 0<INFO<=N, then
WORK(1) contains the reciprocal pivot growth factor for the
leading INFO columns of A.

IWORK


IWORK is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0: if INFO = i, and i is
<= N: U(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization
has been completed, but the factor U is exactly
singular, so the solution and error bounds
could not be computed. RCOND = 0 is returned.
= N+1: U is nonsingular, but RCOND is less than machine
precision, meaning that the matrix is singular
to working precision. Nevertheless, the
solution and error bounds are computed because
there are a number of situations where the
computed solution can be more accurate than the

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine sgbsvxx (character FACT, character TRANS, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NRHS, real, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, real, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, character EQUED, real, dimension( * ) R, real, dimension( * ) C, real, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, real, dimension( ldx , * ) X, integer LDX, real RCOND, real RPVGRW, real, dimension( * ) BERR, integer N_ERR_BNDS, real, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_NORM, real, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_COMP, integer NPARAMS, real, dimension( * ) PARAMS, real, dimension( * ) WORK, integer, dimension( * ) IWORK, integer INFO)

SGBSVXX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for GB matrices

Purpose:


SGBSVXX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a
real system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an
N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices.
If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds
are returned. SGBSVXX will return a solution with a tiny
guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine
precision) unless the matrix is very ill-conditioned, in which
case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are
calculated and returned.
SGBSVXX accepts user-provided factorizations and equilibration
factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options.
Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous
SGBSVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps)
errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general
user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors if they
differ from what SGBSVXX would itself produce.

Description:


The following steps are performed:
1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate
the system:
TRANS = 'N': diag(R)*A*diag(C) *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B
TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the
scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is
overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N')
or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C').
2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor
the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as
A = P * L * U,
where P is a permutation matrix, L is a unit lower triangular
matrix, and U is upper triangular.
3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the
routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A
is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see
argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less
than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X
and compute error bounds as described below.
4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form
of A.
5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero),
the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small
error and error bounds. Refinement calculates the residual to at
least twice the working precision.
6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by
diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so
that it solves the original system before equilibration.


Some optional parameters are bundled in the PARAMS array. These
settings determine how refinement is performed, but often the
defaults are acceptable. If the defaults are acceptable, users
can pass NPARAMS = 0 which prevents the source code from accessing
the PARAMS argument.

Parameters

FACT


FACT is CHARACTER*1
Specifies whether or not the factored form of the matrix A is
supplied on entry, and if not, whether the matrix A should be
equilibrated before it is factored.
= 'F': On entry, AF and IPIV contain the factored form of A.
If EQUED is not 'N', the matrix A has been
equilibrated with scaling factors given by R and C.
A, AF, and IPIV are not modified.
= 'N': The matrix A will be copied to AF and factored.
= 'E': The matrix A will be equilibrated if necessary, then
copied to AF and factored.

TRANS


TRANS is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of the system of equations:
= 'N': A * X = B (No transpose)
= 'T': A**T * X = B (Transpose)
= 'C': A**H * X = B (Conjugate Transpose = Transpose)

N


N is INTEGER
The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

NRHS


NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

AB


AB is REAL array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(KU+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KU)<=i<=min(N,j+kl)
If FACT = 'F' and EQUED is not 'N', then AB must have been
equilibrated by the scaling factors in R and/or C. AB is not
modified if FACT = 'F' or 'N', or if FACT = 'E' and
EQUED = 'N' on exit.
On exit, if EQUED .ne. 'N', A is scaled as follows:
EQUED = 'R': A := diag(R) * A
EQUED = 'C': A := A * diag(C)
EQUED = 'B': A := diag(R) * A * diag(C).

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

AFB


AFB is REAL array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
If FACT = 'F', then AFB is an input argument and on entry
contains details of the LU factorization of the band matrix
A, as computed by SGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular
band matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1,
and the multipliers used during the factorization are stored
in rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1. If EQUED .ne. 'N', then AFB is
the factored form of the equilibrated matrix A.
If FACT = 'N', then AF is an output argument and on exit
returns the factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
of the original matrix A.
If FACT = 'E', then AF is an output argument and on exit
returns the factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
of the equilibrated matrix A (see the description of A for
the form of the equilibrated matrix).

LDAFB


LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
If FACT = 'F', then IPIV is an input argument and on entry
contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
as computed by SGETRF; row i of the matrix was interchanged
with row IPIV(i).
If FACT = 'N', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
of the original matrix A.
If FACT = 'E', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
of the equilibrated matrix A.

EQUED


EQUED is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of equilibration that was done.
= 'N': No equilibration (always true if FACT = 'N').
= 'R': Row equilibration, i.e., A has been premultiplied by
diag(R).
= 'C': Column equilibration, i.e., A has been postmultiplied
by diag(C).
= 'B': Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been
replaced by diag(R) * A * diag(C).
EQUED is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, it is an
output argument.

R


R is REAL array, dimension (N)
The row scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'R' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the left by diag(R); if EQUED = 'N' or 'C', R
is not accessed. R is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, R is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'R' or 'B', each element of R must be positive.
If R is output, each element of R is a power of the radix.
If R is input, each element of R should be a power of the radix
to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
reliable.

C


C is REAL array, dimension (N)
The column scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'C' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the right by diag(C); if EQUED = 'N' or 'R', C
is not accessed. C is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, C is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'C' or 'B', each element of C must be positive.
If C is output, each element of C is a power of the radix.
If C is input, each element of C should be a power of the radix
to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
reliable.

B


B is REAL array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
On exit,
if EQUED = 'N', B is not modified;
if TRANS = 'N' and EQUED = 'R' or 'B', B is overwritten by
diag(R)*B;
if TRANS = 'T' or 'C' and EQUED = 'C' or 'B', B is
overwritten by diag(C)*B.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

X


X is REAL array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
If INFO = 0, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X to the original
system of equations. Note that A and B are modified on exit
if EQUED .ne. 'N', and the solution to the equilibrated system is
inv(diag(C))*X if TRANS = 'N' and EQUED = 'C' or 'B', or
inv(diag(R))*X if TRANS = 'T' or 'C' and EQUED = 'R' or 'B'.

LDX


LDX is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

RCOND


RCOND is REAL
Reciprocal scaled condition number. This is an estimate of the
reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after
equilibration (if done). If this is less than the machine
precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular
to working precision. Note that the error may still be small even
if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill-
conditioned.

RPVGRW


RPVGRW is REAL
Reciprocal pivot growth. On exit, this contains the reciprocal
pivot growth factor norm(A)/norm(U). The "max absolute element"
norm is used. If this is much less than 1, then the stability of
the LU factorization of the (equilibrated) matrix A could be poor.
This also means that the solution X, estimated condition numbers,
and error bounds could be unreliable. If factorization fails with
0<INFO<=N, then this contains the reciprocal pivot growth factor
for the leading INFO columns of A. In SGESVX, this quantity is
returned in WORK(1).

BERR


BERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)
Componentwise relative backward error. This is the
componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j)
(i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that
makes X(j) an exact solution).

N_ERR_BNDS


N_ERR_BNDS is INTEGER
Number of error bounds to return for each right hand side
and each type (normwise or componentwise). See ERR_BNDS_NORM and
ERR_BNDS_COMP below.

ERR_BNDS_NORM


ERR_BNDS_NORM is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
normwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i)))
------------------------------
max_j abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the type of error information as described
below. There currently are up to three pieces of information
returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith
right-hand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the
radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.

ERR_BNDS_COMP


ERR_BNDS_COMP is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i))
max_j ----------------------
abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the right-hand side i (on which the
componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error
information as described below. There currently are up to three
pieces of information returned for each right-hand side. If
componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then
ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed. If N_ERR_BNDS < 3, then at most
the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith
right-hand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the
current right-hand side and S scales each row of
A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row
sums of Z are approximately 1.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.

NPARAMS


NPARAMS is INTEGER
Specifies the number of parameters set in PARAMS. If <= 0, the
PARAMS array is never referenced and default values are used.

PARAMS


PARAMS is REAL array, dimension NPARAMS
Specifies algorithm parameters. If an entry is < 0.0, then
that entry will be filled with default value used for that
parameter. Only positions up to NPARAMS are accessed; defaults
are used for higher-numbered parameters.
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I = 1) : Whether to perform iterative
refinement or not.
Default: 1.0
= 0.0: No refinement is performed, and no error bounds are
computed.
= 1.0: Use the double-precision refinement algorithm,
possibly with doubled-single computations if the
compilation environment does not support DOUBLE
PRECISION.
(other values are reserved for future use)
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITHRESH_I = 2) : Maximum number of residual
computations allowed for refinement.
Default: 10
Aggressive: Set to 100 to permit convergence using approximate
factorizations or factorizations other than LU. If
the factorization uses a technique other than
Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in
err_bnds_norm and err_bnds_comp may no longer be
trustworthy.
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_CWISE_I = 3) : Flag determining if the code
will attempt to find a solution with small componentwise
relative error in the double-precision algorithm. Positive
is true, 0.0 is false.
Default: 1.0 (attempt componentwise convergence)

WORK


WORK is REAL array, dimension (4*N)

IWORK


IWORK is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: Successful exit. The solution to every right-hand side is
guaranteed.
< 0: If INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0 and <= N: U(INFO,INFO) is exactly zero. The factorization
has been completed, but the factor U is exactly singular, so
the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0
is returned.
= N+J: The solution corresponding to the Jth right-hand side is
not guaranteed. The solutions corresponding to other right-
hand sides K with K > J may not be guaranteed as well, but
only the first such right-hand side is reported. If a small
componentwise error is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0) then
the Jth right-hand side is the first with a normwise error
bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such
that ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0). By default (PARAMS(3) = 1.0)
the Jth right-hand side is the first with either a normwise or
componentwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest
J such that either ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0 or
ERR_BNDS_COMP(J,1) = 0.0). See the definition of
ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,1) and ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,1). To get information
about all of the right-hand sides check ERR_BNDS_NORM or
ERR_BNDS_COMP.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

Author

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