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doubleGBcomputational(3) LAPACK doubleGBcomputational(3)

NAME

doubleGBcomputational - double

SYNOPSIS

Functions


subroutine dgbbrd (VECT, M, N, NCC, KL, KU, AB, LDAB, D, E, Q, LDQ, PT, LDPT, C, LDC, WORK, INFO)
DGBBRD subroutine dgbcon (NORM, N, KL, KU, AB, LDAB, IPIV, ANORM, RCOND, WORK, IWORK, INFO)
DGBCON subroutine dgbequ (M, N, KL, KU, AB, LDAB, R, C, ROWCND, COLCND, AMAX, INFO)
DGBEQU subroutine dgbequb (M, N, KL, KU, AB, LDAB, R, C, ROWCND, COLCND, AMAX, INFO)
DGBEQUB subroutine dgbrfs (TRANS, N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, IPIV, B, LDB, X, LDX, FERR, BERR, WORK, IWORK, INFO)
DGBRFS subroutine dgbrfsx (TRANS, EQUED, N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, IPIV, R, C, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, BERR, N_ERR_BNDS, ERR_BNDS_NORM, ERR_BNDS_COMP, NPARAMS, PARAMS, WORK, IWORK, INFO)
DGBRFSX subroutine dgbtf2 (M, N, KL, KU, AB, LDAB, IPIV, INFO)
DGBTF2 computes the LU factorization of a general band matrix using the unblocked version of the algorithm. subroutine dgbtrf (M, N, KL, KU, AB, LDAB, IPIV, INFO)
DGBTRF subroutine dgbtrs (TRANS, N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, IPIV, B, LDB, INFO)
DGBTRS subroutine dggbak (JOB, SIDE, N, ILO, IHI, LSCALE, RSCALE, M, V, LDV, INFO)
DGGBAK subroutine dggbal (JOB, N, A, LDA, B, LDB, ILO, IHI, LSCALE, RSCALE, WORK, INFO)
DGGBAL subroutine dla_gbamv (TRANS, M, N, KL, KU, ALPHA, AB, LDAB, X, INCX, BETA, Y, INCY)
DLA_GBAMV performs a matrix-vector operation to calculate error bounds. double precision function dla_gbrcond (TRANS, N, KL, KU, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, IPIV, CMODE, C, INFO, WORK, IWORK)
DLA_GBRCOND estimates the Skeel condition number for a general banded matrix. subroutine dla_gbrfsx_extended (PREC_TYPE, TRANS_TYPE, N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, IPIV, COLEQU, C, B, LDB, Y, LDY, BERR_OUT, N_NORMS, ERR_BNDS_NORM, ERR_BNDS_COMP, RES, AYB, DY, Y_TAIL, RCOND, ITHRESH, RTHRESH, DZ_UB, IGNORE_CWISE, INFO)
DLA_GBRFSX_EXTENDED improves the computed solution to a system of linear equations for general banded matrices by performing extra-precise iterative refinement and provides error bounds and backward error estimates for the solution. double precision function dla_gbrpvgrw (N, KL, KU, NCOLS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB)
DLA_GBRPVGRW computes the reciprocal pivot growth factor norm(A)/norm(U) for a general banded matrix. subroutine dorgbr (VECT, M, N, K, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, LWORK, INFO)
DORGBR

Detailed Description

This is the group of double computational functions for GB matrices

Function Documentation

subroutine dgbbrd (character VECT, integer M, integer N, integer NCC, integer KL, integer KU, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( * ) D, double precision, dimension( * ) E, double precision, dimension( ldq, * ) Q, integer LDQ, double precision, dimension( ldpt, * ) PT, integer LDPT, double precision, dimension( ldc, * ) C, integer LDC, double precision, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)

DGBBRD

Purpose:


DGBBRD reduces a real general m-by-n band matrix A to upper
bidiagonal form B by an orthogonal transformation: Q**T * A * P = B.
The routine computes B, and optionally forms Q or P**T, or computes
Q**T*C for a given matrix C.

Parameters

VECT


VECT is CHARACTER*1
Specifies whether or not the matrices Q and P**T are to be
formed.
= 'N': do not form Q or P**T;
= 'Q': form Q only;
= 'P': form P**T only;
= 'B': form both.

M


M is INTEGER
The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.

N


N is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0.

NCC


NCC is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix C. NCC >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals of the matrix A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals of the matrix A. KU >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the m-by-n band matrix A, stored in rows 1 to
KL+KU+1. The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of
the array AB as follows:
AB(ku+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-ku)<=i<=min(m,j+kl).
On exit, A is overwritten by values generated during the
reduction.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array A. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

D


D is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N))
The diagonal elements of the bidiagonal matrix B.

E


E is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N)-1)
The superdiagonal elements of the bidiagonal matrix B.

Q


Q is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDQ,M)
If VECT = 'Q' or 'B', the m-by-m orthogonal matrix Q.
If VECT = 'N' or 'P', the array Q is not referenced.

LDQ


LDQ is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array Q.
LDQ >= max(1,M) if VECT = 'Q' or 'B'; LDQ >= 1 otherwise.

PT


PT is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDPT,N)
If VECT = 'P' or 'B', the n-by-n orthogonal matrix P'.
If VECT = 'N' or 'Q', the array PT is not referenced.

LDPT


LDPT is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array PT.
LDPT >= max(1,N) if VECT = 'P' or 'B'; LDPT >= 1 otherwise.

C


C is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDC,NCC)
On entry, an m-by-ncc matrix C.
On exit, C is overwritten by Q**T*C.
C is not referenced if NCC = 0.

LDC


LDC is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array C.
LDC >= max(1,M) if NCC > 0; LDC >= 1 if NCC = 0.

WORK


WORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*max(M,N))

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit.
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dgbcon (character NORM, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, double precision ANORM, double precision RCOND, double precision, dimension( * ) WORK, integer, dimension( * ) IWORK, integer INFO)

DGBCON

Purpose:


DGBCON estimates the reciprocal of the condition number of a real
general band matrix A, in either the 1-norm or the infinity-norm,
using the LU factorization computed by DGBTRF.
An estimate is obtained for norm(inv(A)), and the reciprocal of the
condition number is computed as
RCOND = 1 / ( norm(A) * norm(inv(A)) ).

Parameters

NORM


NORM is CHARACTER*1
Specifies whether the 1-norm condition number or the
infinity-norm condition number is required:
= '1' or 'O': 1-norm;
= 'I': Infinity-norm.

N


N is INTEGER
The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
Details of the LU factorization of the band matrix A, as
computed by DGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular band
matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and
the multipliers used during the factorization are stored in
rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= N, row i of the matrix was
interchanged with row IPIV(i).

ANORM


ANORM is DOUBLE PRECISION
If NORM = '1' or 'O', the 1-norm of the original matrix A.
If NORM = 'I', the infinity-norm of the original matrix A.

RCOND


RCOND is DOUBLE PRECISION
The reciprocal of the condition number of the matrix A,
computed as RCOND = 1/(norm(A) * norm(inv(A))).

WORK


WORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (3*N)

IWORK


IWORK is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dgbequ (integer M, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( * ) R, double precision, dimension( * ) C, double precision ROWCND, double precision COLCND, double precision AMAX, integer INFO)

DGBEQU

Purpose:


DGBEQU computes row and column scalings intended to equilibrate an
M-by-N band matrix A and reduce its condition number. R returns the
row scale factors and C the column scale factors, chosen to try to
make the largest element in each row and column of the matrix B with
elements B(i,j)=R(i)*A(i,j)*C(j) have absolute value 1.
R(i) and C(j) are restricted to be between SMLNUM = smallest safe
number and BIGNUM = largest safe number. Use of these scaling
factors is not guaranteed to reduce the condition number of A but
works well in practice.

Parameters

M


M is INTEGER
The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.

N


N is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
The band matrix A, stored in rows 1 to KL+KU+1. The j-th
column of A is stored in the j-th column of the array AB as
follows:
AB(ku+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-ku)<=i<=min(m,j+kl).

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

R


R is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (M)
If INFO = 0, or INFO > M, R contains the row scale factors
for A.

C


C is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
If INFO = 0, C contains the column scale factors for A.

ROWCND


ROWCND is DOUBLE PRECISION
If INFO = 0 or INFO > M, ROWCND contains the ratio of the
smallest R(i) to the largest R(i). If ROWCND >= 0.1 and
AMAX is neither too large nor too small, it is not worth
scaling by R.

COLCND


COLCND is DOUBLE PRECISION
If INFO = 0, COLCND contains the ratio of the smallest
C(i) to the largest C(i). If COLCND >= 0.1, it is not
worth scaling by C.

AMAX


AMAX is DOUBLE PRECISION
Absolute value of largest matrix element. If AMAX is very
close to overflow or very close to underflow, the matrix
should be scaled.

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0: if INFO = i, and i is
<= M: the i-th row of A is exactly zero
> M: the (i-M)-th column of A is exactly zero

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dgbequb (integer M, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( * ) R, double precision, dimension( * ) C, double precision ROWCND, double precision COLCND, double precision AMAX, integer INFO)

DGBEQUB

Purpose:


DGBEQUB computes row and column scalings intended to equilibrate an
M-by-N matrix A and reduce its condition number. R returns the row
scale factors and C the column scale factors, chosen to try to make
the largest element in each row and column of the matrix B with
elements B(i,j)=R(i)*A(i,j)*C(j) have an absolute value of at most
the radix.
R(i) and C(j) are restricted to be a power of the radix between
SMLNUM = smallest safe number and BIGNUM = largest safe number. Use
of these scaling factors is not guaranteed to reduce the condition
number of A but works well in practice.
This routine differs from DGEEQU by restricting the scaling factors
to a power of the radix. Barring over- and underflow, scaling by
these factors introduces no additional rounding errors. However, the
scaled entries' magnitudes are no longer approximately 1 but lie
between sqrt(radix) and 1/sqrt(radix).

Parameters

M


M is INTEGER
The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.

N


N is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(KU+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KU)<=i<=min(N,j+kl)

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array A. LDAB >= max(1,M).

R


R is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (M)
If INFO = 0 or INFO > M, R contains the row scale factors
for A.

C


C is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
If INFO = 0, C contains the column scale factors for A.

ROWCND


ROWCND is DOUBLE PRECISION
If INFO = 0 or INFO > M, ROWCND contains the ratio of the
smallest R(i) to the largest R(i). If ROWCND >= 0.1 and
AMAX is neither too large nor too small, it is not worth
scaling by R.

COLCND


COLCND is DOUBLE PRECISION
If INFO = 0, COLCND contains the ratio of the smallest
C(i) to the largest C(i). If COLCND >= 0.1, it is not
worth scaling by C.

AMAX


AMAX is DOUBLE PRECISION
Absolute value of largest matrix element. If AMAX is very
close to overflow or very close to underflow, the matrix
should be scaled.

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0: if INFO = i, and i is
<= M: the i-th row of A is exactly zero
> M: the (i-M)-th column of A is exactly zero

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dgbrfs (character TRANS, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NRHS, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, double precision, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, double precision, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, double precision, dimension( * ) FERR, double precision, dimension( * ) BERR, double precision, dimension( * ) WORK, integer, dimension( * ) IWORK, integer INFO)

DGBRFS

Purpose:


DGBRFS improves the computed solution to a system of linear
equations when the coefficient matrix is banded, and provides
error bounds and backward error estimates for the solution.

Parameters

TRANS


TRANS is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of the system of equations:
= 'N': A * X = B (No transpose)
= 'T': A**T * X = B (Transpose)
= 'C': A**H * X = B (Conjugate transpose = Transpose)

N


N is INTEGER
The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

NRHS


NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
The original band matrix A, stored in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(ku+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-ku)<=i<=min(n,j+kl).

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

AFB


AFB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
Details of the LU factorization of the band matrix A, as
computed by DGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular band
matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and
the multipliers used during the factorization are stored in
rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.

LDAFB


LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= 2*KL*KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices from DGBTRF; for 1<=i<=N, row i of the
matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).

B


B is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
The right hand side matrix B.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

X


X is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by DGBTRS.
On exit, the improved solution matrix X.

LDX


LDX is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

FERR


FERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector
X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X).
If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j)
is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest
element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the
largest element in X(j). The estimate is as reliable as
the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight
overestimate of the true error.

BERR


BERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
The componentwise relative backward error of each solution
vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in
any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).

WORK


WORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (3*N)

IWORK


IWORK is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

Internal Parameters:


ITMAX is the maximum number of steps of iterative refinement.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dgbrfsx (character TRANS, character EQUED, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NRHS, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, double precision, dimension( * ) R, double precision, dimension( * ) C, double precision, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, double precision, dimension( ldx , * ) X, integer LDX, double precision RCOND, double precision, dimension( * ) BERR, integer N_ERR_BNDS, double precision, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_NORM, double precision, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_COMP, integer NPARAMS, double precision, dimension( * ) PARAMS, double precision, dimension( * ) WORK, integer, dimension( * ) IWORK, integer INFO)

DGBRFSX

Purpose:


DGBRFSX improves the computed solution to a system of linear
equations and provides error bounds and backward error estimates
for the solution. In addition to normwise error bound, the code
provides maximum componentwise error bound if possible. See
comments for ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP for details of the
error bounds.
The original system of linear equations may have been equilibrated
before calling this routine, as described by arguments EQUED, R
and C below. In this case, the solution and error bounds returned
are for the original unequilibrated system.


Some optional parameters are bundled in the PARAMS array. These
settings determine how refinement is performed, but often the
defaults are acceptable. If the defaults are acceptable, users
can pass NPARAMS = 0 which prevents the source code from accessing
the PARAMS argument.

Parameters

TRANS


TRANS is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of the system of equations:
= 'N': A * X = B (No transpose)
= 'T': A**T * X = B (Transpose)
= 'C': A**H * X = B (Conjugate transpose = Transpose)

EQUED


EQUED is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of equilibration that was done to A
before calling this routine. This is needed to compute
the solution and error bounds correctly.
= 'N': No equilibration
= 'R': Row equilibration, i.e., A has been premultiplied by
diag(R).
= 'C': Column equilibration, i.e., A has been postmultiplied
by diag(C).
= 'B': Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been
replaced by diag(R) * A * diag(C).
The right hand side B has been changed accordingly.

N


N is INTEGER
The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

NRHS


NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
The original band matrix A, stored in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(ku+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-ku)<=i<=min(n,j+kl).

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

AFB


AFB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
Details of the LU factorization of the band matrix A, as
computed by DGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular band
matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and
the multipliers used during the factorization are stored in
rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.

LDAFB


LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= 2*KL*KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices from DGETRF; for 1<=i<=N, row i of the
matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).

R


R is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
The row scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'R' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the left by diag(R); if EQUED = 'N' or 'C', R
is not accessed. R is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, R is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'R' or 'B', each element of R must be positive.
If R is output, each element of R is a power of the radix.
If R is input, each element of R should be a power of the radix
to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
reliable.

C


C is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
The column scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'C' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the right by diag(C); if EQUED = 'N' or 'R', C
is not accessed. C is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, C is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'C' or 'B', each element of C must be positive.
If C is output, each element of C is a power of the radix.
If C is input, each element of C should be a power of the radix
to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
reliable.

B


B is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
The right hand side matrix B.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

X


X is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by DGETRS.
On exit, the improved solution matrix X.

LDX


LDX is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

RCOND


RCOND is DOUBLE PRECISION
Reciprocal scaled condition number. This is an estimate of the
reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after
equilibration (if done). If this is less than the machine
precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular
to working precision. Note that the error may still be small even
if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill-
conditioned.

BERR


BERR is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
Componentwise relative backward error. This is the
componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j)
(i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that
makes X(j) an exact solution).

N_ERR_BNDS


N_ERR_BNDS is INTEGER
Number of error bounds to return for each right hand side
and each type (normwise or componentwise). See ERR_BNDS_NORM and
ERR_BNDS_COMP below.

ERR_BNDS_NORM


ERR_BNDS_NORM is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
normwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i)))
------------------------------
max_j abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the type of error information as described
below. There currently are up to three pieces of information
returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith
right-hand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the
radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.

ERR_BNDS_COMP


ERR_BNDS_COMP is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i))
max_j ----------------------
abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the right-hand side i (on which the
componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error
information as described below. There currently are up to three
pieces of information returned for each right-hand side. If
componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then
ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed. If N_ERR_BNDS < 3, then at most
the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith
right-hand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the
current right-hand side and S scales each row of
A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row
sums of Z are approximately 1.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.

NPARAMS


NPARAMS is INTEGER
Specifies the number of parameters set in PARAMS. If <= 0, the
PARAMS array is never referenced and default values are used.

PARAMS


PARAMS is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NPARAMS)
Specifies algorithm parameters. If an entry is < 0.0, then
that entry will be filled with default value used for that
parameter. Only positions up to NPARAMS are accessed; defaults
are used for higher-numbered parameters.
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I = 1) : Whether to perform iterative
refinement or not.
Default: 1.0D+0
= 0.0: No refinement is performed, and no error bounds are
computed.
= 1.0: Use the double-precision refinement algorithm,
possibly with doubled-single computations if the
compilation environment does not support DOUBLE
PRECISION.
(other values are reserved for future use)
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITHRESH_I = 2) : Maximum number of residual
computations allowed for refinement.
Default: 10
Aggressive: Set to 100 to permit convergence using approximate
factorizations or factorizations other than LU. If
the factorization uses a technique other than
Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in
err_bnds_norm and err_bnds_comp may no longer be
trustworthy.
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_CWISE_I = 3) : Flag determining if the code
will attempt to find a solution with small componentwise
relative error in the double-precision algorithm. Positive
is true, 0.0 is false.
Default: 1.0 (attempt componentwise convergence)

WORK


WORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (4*N)

IWORK


IWORK is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: Successful exit. The solution to every right-hand side is
guaranteed.
< 0: If INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0 and <= N: U(INFO,INFO) is exactly zero. The factorization
has been completed, but the factor U is exactly singular, so
the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0
is returned.
= N+J: The solution corresponding to the Jth right-hand side is
not guaranteed. The solutions corresponding to other right-
hand sides K with K > J may not be guaranteed as well, but
only the first such right-hand side is reported. If a small
componentwise error is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0) then
the Jth right-hand side is the first with a normwise error
bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such
that ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0). By default (PARAMS(3) = 1.0)
the Jth right-hand side is the first with either a normwise or
componentwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest
J such that either ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0 or
ERR_BNDS_COMP(J,1) = 0.0). See the definition of
ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,1) and ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,1). To get information
about all of the right-hand sides check ERR_BNDS_NORM or
ERR_BNDS_COMP.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dgbtf2 (integer M, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer INFO)

DGBTF2 computes the LU factorization of a general band matrix using the unblocked version of the algorithm.

Purpose:


DGBTF2 computes an LU factorization of a real m-by-n band matrix A
using partial pivoting with row interchanges.
This is the unblocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 2 BLAS.

Parameters

M


M is INTEGER
The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.

N


N is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows KL+1 to
2*KL+KU+1; rows 1 to KL of the array need not be set.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(kl+ku+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-ku)<=i<=min(m,j+kl)
On exit, details of the factorization: U is stored as an
upper triangular band matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in
rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and the multipliers used during the
factorization are stored in rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.
See below for further details.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (min(M,N))
The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= min(M,N), row i of the
matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0: if INFO = +i, U(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization
has been completed, but the factor U is exactly
singular, and division by zero will occur if it is used
to solve a system of equations.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

Further Details:


The band storage scheme is illustrated by the following example, when
M = N = 6, KL = 2, KU = 1:
On entry: On exit:
* * * + + + * * * u14 u25 u36
* * + + + + * * u13 u24 u35 u46
* a12 a23 a34 a45 a56 * u12 u23 u34 u45 u56
a11 a22 a33 a44 a55 a66 u11 u22 u33 u44 u55 u66
a21 a32 a43 a54 a65 * m21 m32 m43 m54 m65 *
a31 a42 a53 a64 * * m31 m42 m53 m64 * *
Array elements marked * are not used by the routine; elements marked
+ need not be set on entry, but are required by the routine to store
elements of U, because of fill-in resulting from the row
interchanges.

subroutine dgbtrf (integer M, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer INFO)

DGBTRF

Purpose:


DGBTRF computes an LU factorization of a real m-by-n band matrix A
using partial pivoting with row interchanges.
This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

Parameters

M


M is INTEGER
The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.

N


N is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows KL+1 to
2*KL+KU+1; rows 1 to KL of the array need not be set.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(kl+ku+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-ku)<=i<=min(m,j+kl)
On exit, details of the factorization: U is stored as an
upper triangular band matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in
rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and the multipliers used during the
factorization are stored in rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.
See below for further details.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (min(M,N))
The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= min(M,N), row i of the
matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
> 0: if INFO = +i, U(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization
has been completed, but the factor U is exactly
singular, and division by zero will occur if it is used
to solve a system of equations.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

Further Details:


The band storage scheme is illustrated by the following example, when
M = N = 6, KL = 2, KU = 1:
On entry: On exit:
* * * + + + * * * u14 u25 u36
* * + + + + * * u13 u24 u35 u46
* a12 a23 a34 a45 a56 * u12 u23 u34 u45 u56
a11 a22 a33 a44 a55 a66 u11 u22 u33 u44 u55 u66
a21 a32 a43 a54 a65 * m21 m32 m43 m54 m65 *
a31 a42 a53 a64 * * m31 m42 m53 m64 * *
Array elements marked * are not used by the routine; elements marked
+ need not be set on entry, but are required by the routine to store
elements of U because of fill-in resulting from the row interchanges.

subroutine dgbtrs (character TRANS, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NRHS, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, double precision, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)

DGBTRS

Purpose:


DGBTRS solves a system of linear equations
A * X = B or A**T * X = B
with a general band matrix A using the LU factorization computed
by DGBTRF.

Parameters

TRANS


TRANS is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of the system of equations.
= 'N': A * X = B (No transpose)
= 'T': A**T* X = B (Transpose)
= 'C': A**T* X = B (Conjugate transpose = Transpose)

N


N is INTEGER
The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

NRHS


NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
Details of the LU factorization of the band matrix A, as
computed by DGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular band
matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and
the multipliers used during the factorization are stored in
rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= N, row i of the matrix was
interchanged with row IPIV(i).

B


B is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
On entry, the right hand side matrix B.
On exit, the solution matrix X.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dggbak (character JOB, character SIDE, integer N, integer ILO, integer IHI, double precision, dimension( * ) LSCALE, double precision, dimension( * ) RSCALE, integer M, double precision, dimension( ldv, * ) V, integer LDV, integer INFO)

DGGBAK

Purpose:


DGGBAK forms the right or left eigenvectors of a real generalized
eigenvalue problem A*x = lambda*B*x, by backward transformation on
the computed eigenvectors of the balanced pair of matrices output by
DGGBAL.

Parameters

JOB


JOB is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the type of backward transformation required:
= 'N': do nothing, return immediately;
= 'P': do backward transformation for permutation only;
= 'S': do backward transformation for scaling only;
= 'B': do backward transformations for both permutation and
scaling.
JOB must be the same as the argument JOB supplied to DGGBAL.

SIDE


SIDE is CHARACTER*1
= 'R': V contains right eigenvectors;
= 'L': V contains left eigenvectors.

N


N is INTEGER
The number of rows of the matrix V. N >= 0.

ILO


ILO is INTEGER

IHI


IHI is INTEGER
The integers ILO and IHI determined by DGGBAL.
1 <= ILO <= IHI <= N, if N > 0; ILO=1 and IHI=0, if N=0.

LSCALE


LSCALE is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Details of the permutations and/or scaling factors applied
to the left side of A and B, as returned by DGGBAL.

RSCALE


RSCALE is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Details of the permutations and/or scaling factors applied
to the right side of A and B, as returned by DGGBAL.

M


M is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix V. M >= 0.

V


V is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDV,M)
On entry, the matrix of right or left eigenvectors to be
transformed, as returned by DTGEVC.
On exit, V is overwritten by the transformed eigenvectors.

LDV


LDV is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the matrix V. LDV >= max(1,N).

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit.
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

Further Details:


See R.C. Ward, Balancing the generalized eigenvalue problem,
SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comp. 2 (1981), 141-152.

subroutine dggbal (character JOB, integer N, double precision, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, double precision, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer ILO, integer IHI, double precision, dimension( * ) LSCALE, double precision, dimension( * ) RSCALE, double precision, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)

DGGBAL

Purpose:


DGGBAL balances a pair of general real matrices (A,B). This
involves, first, permuting A and B by similarity transformations to
isolate eigenvalues in the first 1 to ILO$-$1 and last IHI+1 to N
elements on the diagonal; and second, applying a diagonal similarity
transformation to rows and columns ILO to IHI to make the rows
and columns as close in norm as possible. Both steps are optional.
Balancing may reduce the 1-norm of the matrices, and improve the
accuracy of the computed eigenvalues and/or eigenvectors in the
generalized eigenvalue problem A*x = lambda*B*x.

Parameters

JOB


JOB is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the operations to be performed on A and B:
= 'N': none: simply set ILO = 1, IHI = N, LSCALE(I) = 1.0
and RSCALE(I) = 1.0 for i = 1,...,N.
= 'P': permute only;
= 'S': scale only;
= 'B': both permute and scale.

N


N is INTEGER
The order of the matrices A and B. N >= 0.

A


A is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA,N)
On entry, the input matrix A.
On exit, A is overwritten by the balanced matrix.
If JOB = 'N', A is not referenced.

LDA


LDA is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

B


B is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB,N)
On entry, the input matrix B.
On exit, B is overwritten by the balanced matrix.
If JOB = 'N', B is not referenced.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

ILO


ILO is INTEGER

IHI


IHI is INTEGER
ILO and IHI are set to integers such that on exit
A(i,j) = 0 and B(i,j) = 0 if i > j and
j = 1,...,ILO-1 or i = IHI+1,...,N.
If JOB = 'N' or 'S', ILO = 1 and IHI = N.

LSCALE


LSCALE is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Details of the permutations and scaling factors applied
to the left side of A and B. If P(j) is the index of the
row interchanged with row j, and D(j)
is the scaling factor applied to row j, then
LSCALE(j) = P(j) for J = 1,...,ILO-1
= D(j) for J = ILO,...,IHI
= P(j) for J = IHI+1,...,N.
The order in which the interchanges are made is N to IHI+1,
then 1 to ILO-1.

RSCALE


RSCALE is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Details of the permutations and scaling factors applied
to the right side of A and B. If P(j) is the index of the
column interchanged with column j, and D(j)
is the scaling factor applied to column j, then
LSCALE(j) = P(j) for J = 1,...,ILO-1
= D(j) for J = ILO,...,IHI
= P(j) for J = IHI+1,...,N.
The order in which the interchanges are made is N to IHI+1,
then 1 to ILO-1.

WORK


WORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (lwork)
lwork must be at least max(1,6*N) when JOB = 'S' or 'B', and
at least 1 when JOB = 'N' or 'P'.

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

Further Details:


See R.C. WARD, Balancing the generalized eigenvalue problem,
SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comp. 2 (1981), 141-152.

subroutine dla_gbamv (integer TRANS, integer M, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, double precision ALPHA, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( * ) X, integer INCX, double precision BETA, double precision, dimension( * ) Y, integer INCY)

DLA_GBAMV performs a matrix-vector operation to calculate error bounds.

Purpose:


DLA_GBAMV performs one of the matrix-vector operations
y := alpha*abs(A)*abs(x) + beta*abs(y),
or y := alpha*abs(A)**T*abs(x) + beta*abs(y),
where alpha and beta are scalars, x and y are vectors and A is an
m by n matrix.
This function is primarily used in calculating error bounds.
To protect against underflow during evaluation, components in
the resulting vector are perturbed away from zero by (N+1)
times the underflow threshold. To prevent unnecessarily large
errors for block-structure embedded in general matrices,
"symbolically" zero components are not perturbed. A zero
entry is considered "symbolic" if all multiplications involved
in computing that entry have at least one zero multiplicand.

Parameters

TRANS


TRANS is INTEGER
On entry, TRANS specifies the operation to be performed as
follows:
BLAS_NO_TRANS y := alpha*abs(A)*abs(x) + beta*abs(y)
BLAS_TRANS y := alpha*abs(A**T)*abs(x) + beta*abs(y)
BLAS_CONJ_TRANS y := alpha*abs(A**T)*abs(x) + beta*abs(y)
Unchanged on exit.

M


M is INTEGER
On entry, M specifies the number of rows of the matrix A.
M must be at least zero.
Unchanged on exit.

N


N is INTEGER
On entry, N specifies the number of columns of the matrix A.
N must be at least zero.
Unchanged on exit.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

ALPHA


ALPHA is DOUBLE PRECISION
On entry, ALPHA specifies the scalar alpha.
Unchanged on exit.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension ( LDAB, n )
Before entry, the leading m by n part of the array AB must
contain the matrix of coefficients.
Unchanged on exit.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
On entry, LDA specifies the first dimension of AB as declared
in the calling (sub) program. LDAB must be at least
max( 1, m ).
Unchanged on exit.

X


X is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension
( 1 + ( n - 1 )*abs( INCX ) ) when TRANS = 'N' or 'n'
and at least
( 1 + ( m - 1 )*abs( INCX ) ) otherwise.
Before entry, the incremented array X must contain the
vector x.
Unchanged on exit.

INCX


INCX is INTEGER
On entry, INCX specifies the increment for the elements of
X. INCX must not be zero.
Unchanged on exit.

BETA


BETA is DOUBLE PRECISION
On entry, BETA specifies the scalar beta. When BETA is
supplied as zero then Y need not be set on input.
Unchanged on exit.

Y


Y is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension
( 1 + ( m - 1 )*abs( INCY ) ) when TRANS = 'N' or 'n'
and at least
( 1 + ( n - 1 )*abs( INCY ) ) otherwise.
Before entry with BETA non-zero, the incremented array Y
must contain the vector y. On exit, Y is overwritten by the
updated vector y.

INCY


INCY is INTEGER
On entry, INCY specifies the increment for the elements of
Y. INCY must not be zero.
Unchanged on exit.
Level 2 Blas routine.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

double precision function dla_gbrcond (character TRANS, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer CMODE, double precision, dimension( * ) C, integer INFO, double precision, dimension( * ) WORK, integer, dimension( * ) IWORK)

DLA_GBRCOND estimates the Skeel condition number for a general banded matrix.

Purpose:


DLA_GBRCOND Estimates the Skeel condition number of op(A) * op2(C)
where op2 is determined by CMODE as follows
CMODE = 1 op2(C) = C
CMODE = 0 op2(C) = I
CMODE = -1 op2(C) = inv(C)
The Skeel condition number cond(A) = norminf( |inv(A)||A| )
is computed by computing scaling factors R such that
diag(R)*A*op2(C) is row equilibrated and computing the standard
infinity-norm condition number.

Parameters

TRANS


TRANS is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of the system of equations:
= 'N': A * X = B (No transpose)
= 'T': A**T * X = B (Transpose)
= 'C': A**H * X = B (Conjugate Transpose = Transpose)

N


N is INTEGER
The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(KU+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KU)<=i<=min(N,j+kl)

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

AFB


AFB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
Details of the LU factorization of the band matrix A, as
computed by DGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular
band matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1,
and the multipliers used during the factorization are stored
in rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.

LDAFB


LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
as computed by DGBTRF; row i of the matrix was interchanged
with row IPIV(i).

CMODE


CMODE is INTEGER
Determines op2(C) in the formula op(A) * op2(C) as follows:
CMODE = 1 op2(C) = C
CMODE = 0 op2(C) = I
CMODE = -1 op2(C) = inv(C)

C


C is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
The vector C in the formula op(A) * op2(C).

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: Successful exit.
i > 0: The ith argument is invalid.

WORK


WORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (5*N).
Workspace.

IWORK


IWORK is INTEGER array, dimension (N).
Workspace.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dla_gbrfsx_extended (integer PREC_TYPE, integer TRANS_TYPE, integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NRHS, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, logical COLEQU, double precision, dimension( * ) C, double precision, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, double precision, dimension( ldy, * ) Y, integer LDY, double precision, dimension(*) BERR_OUT, integer N_NORMS, double precision, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_NORM, double precision, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_COMP, double precision, dimension(*) RES, double precision, dimension(*) AYB, double precision, dimension(*) DY, double precision, dimension(*) Y_TAIL, double precision RCOND, integer ITHRESH, double precision RTHRESH, double precision DZ_UB, logical IGNORE_CWISE, integer INFO)

DLA_GBRFSX_EXTENDED improves the computed solution to a system of linear equations for general banded matrices by performing extra-precise iterative refinement and provides error bounds and backward error estimates for the solution.

Purpose:


DLA_GBRFSX_EXTENDED improves the computed solution to a system of
linear equations by performing extra-precise iterative refinement
and provides error bounds and backward error estimates for the solution.
This subroutine is called by DGBRFSX to perform iterative refinement.
In addition to normwise error bound, the code provides maximum
componentwise error bound if possible. See comments for ERR_BNDS_NORM
and ERR_BNDS_COMP for details of the error bounds. Note that this
subroutine is only resonsible for setting the second fields of
ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP.

Parameters

PREC_TYPE


PREC_TYPE is INTEGER
Specifies the intermediate precision to be used in refinement.
The value is defined by ILAPREC(P) where P is a CHARACTER and P
= 'S': Single
= 'D': Double
= 'I': Indigenous
= 'X' or 'E': Extra

TRANS_TYPE


TRANS_TYPE is INTEGER
Specifies the transposition operation on A.
The value is defined by ILATRANS(T) where T is a CHARACTER and T
= 'N': No transpose
= 'T': Transpose
= 'C': Conjugate transpose

N


N is INTEGER
The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0

NRHS


NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right-hand-sides, i.e., the number of columns of the
matrix B.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the N-by-N matrix AB.

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDBA >= max(1,N).

AFB


AFB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
The factors L and U from the factorization
A = P*L*U as computed by DGBTRF.

LDAFB


LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAFB >= max(1,N).

IPIV


IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
as computed by DGBTRF; row i of the matrix was interchanged
with row IPIV(i).

COLEQU


COLEQU is LOGICAL
If .TRUE. then column equilibration was done to A before calling
this routine. This is needed to compute the solution and error
bounds correctly.

C


C is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
The column scale factors for A. If COLEQU = .FALSE., C
is not accessed. If C is input, each element of C should be a power
of the radix to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates.
Scaling by powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless
the result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
reliable.

B


B is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
The right-hand-side matrix B.

LDB


LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

Y


Y is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDY,NRHS)
On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by DGBTRS.
On exit, the improved solution matrix Y.

LDY


LDY is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array Y. LDY >= max(1,N).

BERR_OUT


BERR_OUT is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
On exit, BERR_OUT(j) contains the componentwise relative backward
error for right-hand-side j from the formula
max(i) ( abs(RES(i)) / ( abs(op(A_s))*abs(Y) + abs(B_s) )(i) )
where abs(Z) is the componentwise absolute value of the matrix
or vector Z. This is computed by DLA_LIN_BERR.

N_NORMS


N_NORMS is INTEGER
Determines which error bounds to return (see ERR_BNDS_NORM
and ERR_BNDS_COMP).
If N_NORMS >= 1 return normwise error bounds.
If N_NORMS >= 2 return componentwise error bounds.

ERR_BNDS_NORM


ERR_BNDS_NORM is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
normwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i)))
------------------------------
max_j abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the type of error information as described
below. There currently are up to three pieces of information
returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith
right-hand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the
radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1.
This subroutine is only responsible for setting the second field
above.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.

ERR_BNDS_COMP


ERR_BNDS_COMP is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i))
max_j ----------------------
abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the right-hand side i (on which the
componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error
information as described below. There currently are up to three
pieces of information returned for each right-hand side. If
componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then
ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed. If N_ERR_BNDS < 3, then at most
the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith
right-hand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the
current right-hand side and S scales each row of
A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row
sums of Z are approximately 1.
This subroutine is only responsible for setting the second field
above.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.

RES


RES is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Workspace to hold the intermediate residual.

AYB


AYB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Workspace. This can be the same workspace passed for Y_TAIL.

DY


DY is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Workspace to hold the intermediate solution.

Y_TAIL


Y_TAIL is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
Workspace to hold the trailing bits of the intermediate solution.

RCOND


RCOND is DOUBLE PRECISION
Reciprocal scaled condition number. This is an estimate of the
reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after
equilibration (if done). If this is less than the machine
precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular
to working precision. Note that the error may still be small even
if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill-
conditioned.

ITHRESH


ITHRESH is INTEGER
The maximum number of residual computations allowed for
refinement. The default is 10. For 'aggressive' set to 100 to
permit convergence using approximate factorizations or
factorizations other than LU. If the factorization uses a
technique other than Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in
ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP may no longer be trustworthy.

RTHRESH


RTHRESH is DOUBLE PRECISION
Determines when to stop refinement if the error estimate stops
decreasing. Refinement will stop when the next solution no longer
satisfies norm(dx_{i+1}) < RTHRESH * norm(dx_i) where norm(Z) is
the infinity norm of Z. RTHRESH satisfies 0 < RTHRESH <= 1. The
default value is 0.5. For 'aggressive' set to 0.9 to permit
convergence on extremely ill-conditioned matrices. See LAWN 165
for more details.

DZ_UB


DZ_UB is DOUBLE PRECISION
Determines when to start considering componentwise convergence.
Componentwise convergence is only considered after each component
of the solution Y is stable, which we define as the relative
change in each component being less than DZ_UB. The default value
is 0.25, requiring the first bit to be stable. See LAWN 165 for
more details.

IGNORE_CWISE


IGNORE_CWISE is LOGICAL
If .TRUE. then ignore componentwise convergence. Default value
is .FALSE..

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: Successful exit.
< 0: if INFO = -i, the ith argument to DGBTRS had an illegal
value

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

double precision function dla_gbrpvgrw (integer N, integer KL, integer KU, integer NCOLS, double precision, dimension( ldab, * ) AB, integer LDAB, double precision, dimension( ldafb, * ) AFB, integer LDAFB)

DLA_GBRPVGRW computes the reciprocal pivot growth factor norm(A)/norm(U) for a general banded matrix.

Purpose:


DLA_GBRPVGRW computes the reciprocal pivot growth factor
norm(A)/norm(U). The "max absolute element" norm is used. If this is
much less than 1, the stability of the LU factorization of the
(equilibrated) matrix A could be poor. This also means that the
solution X, estimated condition numbers, and error bounds could be
unreliable.

Parameters

N


N is INTEGER
The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
matrix A. N >= 0.

KL


KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.

KU


KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.

NCOLS


NCOLS is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix A. NCOLS >= 0.

AB


AB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAB,N)
On entry, the matrix A in band storage, in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The j-th column of A is stored in the j-th column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(KU+1+i-j,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,j-KU)<=i<=min(N,j+kl)

LDAB


LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.

AFB


AFB is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
Details of the LU factorization of the band matrix A, as
computed by DGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular
band matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1,
and the multipliers used during the factorization are stored
in rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.

LDAFB


LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= 2*KL+KU+1.

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

subroutine dorgbr (character VECT, integer M, integer N, integer K, double precision, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, double precision, dimension( * ) TAU, double precision, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)

DORGBR

Purpose:


DORGBR generates one of the real orthogonal matrices Q or P**T
determined by DGEBRD when reducing a real matrix A to bidiagonal
form: A = Q * B * P**T. Q and P**T are defined as products of
elementary reflectors H(i) or G(i) respectively.
If VECT = 'Q', A is assumed to have been an M-by-K matrix, and Q
is of order M:
if m >= k, Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(k) and DORGBR returns the first n
columns of Q, where m >= n >= k;
if m < k, Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(m-1) and DORGBR returns Q as an
M-by-M matrix.
If VECT = 'P', A is assumed to have been a K-by-N matrix, and P**T
is of order N:
if k < n, P**T = G(k) . . . G(2) G(1) and DORGBR returns the first m
rows of P**T, where n >= m >= k;
if k >= n, P**T = G(n-1) . . . G(2) G(1) and DORGBR returns P**T as
an N-by-N matrix.

Parameters

VECT


VECT is CHARACTER*1
Specifies whether the matrix Q or the matrix P**T is
required, as defined in the transformation applied by DGEBRD:
= 'Q': generate Q;
= 'P': generate P**T.

M


M is INTEGER
The number of rows of the matrix Q or P**T to be returned.
M >= 0.

N


N is INTEGER
The number of columns of the matrix Q or P**T to be returned.
N >= 0.
If VECT = 'Q', M >= N >= min(M,K);
if VECT = 'P', N >= M >= min(N,K).

K


K is INTEGER
If VECT = 'Q', the number of columns in the original M-by-K
matrix reduced by DGEBRD.
If VECT = 'P', the number of rows in the original K-by-N
matrix reduced by DGEBRD.
K >= 0.

A


A is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA,N)
On entry, the vectors which define the elementary reflectors,
as returned by DGEBRD.
On exit, the M-by-N matrix Q or P**T.

LDA


LDA is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).

TAU


TAU is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension
(min(M,K)) if VECT = 'Q'
(min(N,K)) if VECT = 'P'
TAU(i) must contain the scalar factor of the elementary
reflector H(i) or G(i), which determines Q or P**T, as
returned by DGEBRD in its array argument TAUQ or TAUP.

WORK


WORK is DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

LWORK


LWORK is INTEGER
The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= max(1,min(M,N)).
For optimum performance LWORK >= min(M,N)*NB, where NB
is the optimal blocksize.
If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

INFO


INFO is INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

Author

Univ. of Tennessee

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

Author

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