|SCAMPER(1)||General Commands Manual||SCAMPER(1)|
scamper — parallel
Internet measurement utility
scamper utility provides the ability
to execute Internet measurement techniques to IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, in
parallel, to fill a specified packets-per-second rate. Currently,
scamper supports the well-known traceroute and ping
techniques, as well as MDA traceroute, alias resolution, some parts of tbit,
sting, and neighbour discovery.
scamper has five modes of operation.
scamper can be supplied a list of addresses
on the command line with the
scamper will then execute a command with each of the
supplied addresses, in parallel, and output the results as each task
scamper can be supplied a list of
addresses in a listfile, one address per line, using the
-f option. Third,
can be supplied a list of complete commands on the command line with the
-I option. Fourth,
can be instructed to listen on an IP address and port specified with the
-P option, or on a unix domain socket specified with
-U option, where it can take commands
scamper can be instructed to
connect to a remote host and port specified with the
-R option, where it will be supplied with commands
The options are as follows:
- prints a list of command line options and a synopsis of each.
scamperto output version information and exit.
- With this option set,
scamperwill detach and become a daemon. Use with the
- specifies the command for
scamperto use by default. The current choices for this option are:
scamperuses trace by default. The available commands and their options are documented below.
- specifies the target packets-per-second rate for
scamperto reach. By default, this value is 20.
- specifies the maximum number of tasks that may be probed in parallel. A value of zero places no upper limit. By default, zero is used.
- specifies the canonical name of machine where
scamperis run. This value is used when recording the output in a warts output file.
- specifies the name of the list when run from the command line. This value is used when recording the output in a warts output file.
- specifies the numerical id of the list when run from the command line. This value is used when recording the output in a warts output file.
- specifies the numerical cycle id to begin with when run from the command line. This value is used when recording the output in a warts output file.
- specifies the default output file to write measurement results to. By default, stdout is used.
- specifies that
scampermay use the firewall in measurements that require it (tbit and sting).
scampersupports two firewall types: IPFW, and PF. To use the IPFW firewall, pass ipfw:<start>-<end>, where <start> is the first rule
scampercan use, and <end> is the last. To use the PF firewall, pass pf:<anchor>:<num>, where <anchor> is the anchor for
scamperto use, and <num> specifies the number of rules
scamperis allowed to use.
- specifies a filename to write debugging messages to. By default, no debugfile is used, though debugging output is sent to stderr if scamper is built for debugging.
- specifies a file to write scamper's process ID to. If scamper is built with privilege separation, the ID of the unprivileged process is written.
- allows scamper's behaviour to be further tailored. The current choices for
this option are:
- text: output results in plain text. Suitable for interactive use.
- warts: output results in warts format. Suitable for archiving measurement results and for use by researchers as it records details that cannot be easily represented with the text option.
- json: output results in json format. Suitable for processing measurement results with a scripting language. A better approach is to output results in warts format, and to use sc_warts2json(1).
- planetlab: tell scamper it is running on a planetlab system. Necessary to use planetlab's safe raw sockets.
- rawtcp: tell scamper to use IPPROTO_RAW socket to send IPv4 TCP probes, rather than a datalink socket.
- select: tell scamper to use select(2) rather than poll(2)
- kqueue: tell scamper to use kqueue(2) rather than poll(2) on systems where kqueue(2) is available.
- epoll: tell scamper to use epoll(7) rather than poll(2) on systems where epoll(7) is available.
- tsps: the input file consists of a sequence of IP addresses for pre-specified IP timestamps.
- cmdfile: the input file consists of complete commands.
- noinitndc: do not initialise the neighbour discovery cache.
- outcopy: write a copy of all data written by scamper with the default output method.
append to the debugfile specified with the
-doption. The default is to truncate the debugfile.
require the use of TLS with the remove controller specified with the
- notls: do not use TLS anywhere in scamper, including tbit.
- specifies the addresses to probe, on the command line, using the command
specified with the
- specifies the input file to read for target addresses, one per line, and
uses the command specified with the
-coption on each.
- specifies complete commands, including target addresses, for scamper to execute.
- specifies that
scamperprovide a control socket listening on the specified IP address and port on the local host. If an IP address is not specified,
scamperwill bind to the port specified on the loopback address.
- specifies that
scamperconnects to a specified remote host and port to receive commands.
-Uunix domain socket
- specifies that
scamperprovide a control socket listening on the specified socket in the unix domain.
The trace command is used for conducting traceroute. The following variations of the traceroute(8) options are available:
- specifies that a hop should be probed to a specified confidence level (95% or 99%) to be sure the trace has seen all interfaces that will reply for that hop.
- specifies the base destination port value to use for UDP-based and TCP-based traceroute methods. For ICMP-paris, this option sets the ICMP checksum value.
- specifies the TTL or HLIM value to begin probing with. By default, a first hop of one is used.
- specifies the number of unresponsive hops permitted until a check is made to see if the destination will respond. By default, a gap limit of 5 hops is used. Setting the gap limit to 0 disables the gap limit, but doing this is not recommended.
- specifies what should happen if the gaplimit condition is met. A value of 1 (default) means halt probing, while a value of 2 means send last-ditch probes.
- specifies the maximum TTL or HLIM value that will be probed. By default, there is no restriction, apart from the 255 hops that the Internet protocols allow.
- specifies that path MTU discovery (PMTUD) should be attempted for the path
when the initial traceroute completes.
scamperwill not conduct PMTUD unless it is probing a responsive destination, as otherwise there is no way to distinguish all packets being lost from just big packets (larger than MTU) being lost.
- specifies the maximum number of loops permitted until probing stops. By default, a value of one is used. A value of zero disables loop checking.
- specifies the fragmentation offset to use in probes. By default, no offset is used.
- specifies optional arguments to use. The current choices for this option are:
- specifies the payload of the probe to use as a base. The payload is specified in hexadecimal. Note that the payload supplied is merely a base; the first 2 bytes may be modified to accomplish ICMP-Paris and UDP-Paris traceroute.
- specifies the traceroute method to use.
scampercurrently supports five different probe methods: UDP, ICMP, UDP-paris, ICMP-paris, TCP, and TCP-ACK. By default, UDP-paris is used.
- specifies the maximum number of attempts to obtain a response per hop. By default, a value of two is used.
- specifies that all allocated probes are sent, regardless of how many responses have been received.
- specifies the IP address of the router to use.
- specifies the source port value to use. For ICMP-based methods, this option specifies the ICMP identifier to use.
- specifies the source address to use in probes. The address cannot be spoofed.
- specifies the value to set in the IP ToS/DSCP + ECN byte. By default, this byte is set to zero.
- specifies that time exceeded messages from the destination do not cause the trace to be defined as reaching the destination.
- specifies an unsigned integer to include with the data collected; the meaning of the user-id is entirely up to the user and has no effect on the behaviour of traceroute.
- specifies how long to wait, in seconds, for a reply. By default, a value of 5 is used.
- specifies the minimum time to wait, in 10s of milliseconds, between sending consecutive probes. By default the next probe is sent as soon as possible.
- specifies an IP address to halt probing when encountered; used with the double-tree algorithm.
- specifies the name of the local stop set to use when determining when to halt probing backwards; used with the double-tree algorithm.
The ping command is used for conducting ping. The following variations of the ping(8) options are available:
- specifies the number to use in the acknowledgement field of the TCP header, or the sequence number field of the TCP header when sending reset probes.
- specifies, in a hexadecimal string, the payload to include in each probe.
- specifies the number of probes to send before exiting. By default, a value of 4 is used.
- specifies the ICMP checksum to use when sending a probe. The payload of each probe will be manipulated so that the checksum is valid.
- specifies the destination port to use in each TCP/UDP probe, and the first ICMP sequence number to use in ICMP probes.
- specifies the source port to use in each TCP/UDP probe, and the ICMP ID to use in ICMP probes.
- specifies the length of time to wait, in seconds, between probes. By default, a value of 1 is used.
- specifies the TTL value to use for outgoing packets. By default, a value of 64 is used.
- specifies a pseudo MTU value. If the response packet is larger than the pseudo MTU, an ICMP packet too big (PTB) message is sent.
- specifies the number of replies required at which time probing may cease. By default, all probes are sent.
- The current choices for this option are:
- dl specifies that the ping should use datalink sockets, rather than raw sockets.
- nosrc specifies that the real address of the host should not be embedded in the payload of the packet when the spoof option is used.
specifies that the source address is to be spoofed according to the
address specified with the
-Soption. The address scamper would otherwise use as the source address is embedded in the payload of the probe unless the nosrc option is used.
specifies that the goal of the ping is to obtain fragmented responses,
so that the
-coption specifies how many packets to send, and the
-ooption specifies how many fragmented responses are desired.
- specifies the pattern, in hex, to use in probes. Up to 16 bytes may be specified. By default, each probe's bytes are zeroed.
- specifies the type of ping packets to send. By default, ICMP echo requests are sent. Choices are: icmp-echo, icmp-time, tcp-syn, tcp-ack, tcp-ack-sport, tcp-synack, tcp-rst, udp, and udp-dport.
- specifies that the record route IP option should be used.
- specifies the size of the probes to send. The probe size includes the length of the IP and ICMP headers. By default, a probe size of 84 bytes is used for IPv4 pings, and 56 bytes for IPv6 pings.
- specifies the source address to use in probes. The address can be spoofed if -O spoof is included.
- specifies that an IP timestamp option be included. The timestamp option can either be: tsprespec where IP addresses of devices of interest can be specified; tsonly, where timestamps are embedded by devices but no IP addresses are included; and tsandaddr, where timestamps and IP addresses are included by devices in the path. See the examples section for more information.
- specifies an unsigned integer to include with the data collected; the meaning of the user-id is entirely up to the user and has no effect on the behaviour of ping.
- specifies how long to wait for responses after the last ping is sent. By default this is one second.
- specifies the value to use in the IPv4 ToS/DSCP + ECN byte. By default, this byte is set to zero.
The dealias command is used to send probes for the purpose of
alias resolution. It supports the mercator technique, where aliases are
inferred if a router uses a different address when sending an ICMP response;
the ally technique, where aliases are inferred if a sequence of probes sent
to alternating IP addresses yields responses with incrementing, interleaved
IP-ID values; radargun, where probes are sent to a set of IP addresses in
multiple rounds and aliases are inferred by post-processing the results;
prefixscan, where an alias is searched in a prefix for a specified IP
address; and bump, where two addresses believed to be aliases are probed in
an effort to force their IP-ID values out of sequence. The following options
are available for the
scamper dealias command:
- specifies the destination port to use when sending probes. Only valid for
the mercator technique; destination ports can be specified in probedefs
-pfor other alias resolution methods.
- specifies a fudge factor for alias matching. Defaults to 200. Only valid for ally and bump.
- specifies which method to use for alias resolution. Valid options are: ally, bump, mercator, prefixscan, and radargun.
- specifies how many replies to wait for. Only valid for prefixscan.
- allows alias resolution behaviour to be further tailored. The current choices for this option are:
- specifies a definition for a probe. Possible options are:
- specifies what ICMP checksum to use for ICMP probes. The payload of the probe will be altered appropriately.
- specifies the destination port of the probe. Defaults to 33435.
- specifies the source port of the probe. Defaults to (pid & 0x7fff) + 0x8000.
- specifies the destination IP address of the probe.
- specifies the pseudo MTU to use when soliciting fragmented responses.
- specifies which method to use for the probe. Valid options are: udp, udp-dport, tcp-ack, tcp-ack-sport, tcp-syn-sport, and icmp-echo.
- specifies the size of the probes to send.
- specifies the IP time to live of the probe.
- specifies how many times a probe should be retried if it does not obtain a useful response.
- specifies how many milliseconds to wait between probing rounds with radargun.
- specifies the source port to use when sending probes. Only valid for mercator.
- specifies the time-to-live of probes sent. Only valid for mercator.
- specifies an unsigned integer to include with the data collected; the meaning of the user-id is entirely up to the user and has no effect on the behaviour of dealias.
- specifies how long to wait in seconds for a reply from the remote host.
- specifies how long to wait in milliseconds between probes.
- specifies an IP address to exclude when using the prefixscan method. May be specified multiple times to exclude multiple addresses.
NEIGHBOUR DISCOVERY OPTIONS¶
The neighbourdisc command attempts to find the layer-2 address of
a given IP address using IPv4 ARP or IPv6 Neighbour Discovery. The following
options are available for the
- specifies that we only want the first response.
- specifies that we want to send all attempts.
- specifies the name of the interface to use for neighbour discovery.
- specifies how many replies we wait for.
- specifies how many probes we send out.
- specifies how long to wait between probes in milliseconds. Defaults to 1000.
The tbit command can be used to infer TCP behaviour of a specified
host. At present, it implements tests to check the ability of the host to
respond to ICMP Packet Too Big messages, respond to Explicit Congestion
Notification, test Selective Acknowledgement behaviour, the Initial
Congestion Window, and resilience to Blind Attacks. The following options
are available for the
scamper tbit command:
- specifies which type of testing to use. Valid options are: pmtud, ecn, null, sack-rcvr, icw, abc, blind-rst, blind-syn, blind-data.
- specifies what kind of traffic to generate for testing. Destination port defaults the application standard port. Valid applications are: http, bgp.
- specifies the destination port for the packets being sent. Defaults are application-specific.
- specifies the source port for the packets being sent. Default is based of
- specifies the sequence of packets that should be acknowledged as part of the ABC test.
- specifies the autonomous system number (ASN) that should be used when establishing a BGP session.
- specifies the initial congestion window (ICW) that we expect from the peer when conducting the ABC test.
- specifies the TCP fast open cookie that should be used when establishing a TCP connection.
- test the response to a theoretical limit (L) value with ABC.
- specifies the maximum segment size to advertise to the remote host.
- specifies the MTU to use in a Packet Too Big message.
- specifies the sequence number offset to use when conducting blind-syn and blind-rst tests, and the acknowledgement number offset to use when conducting a blind-data test.
- allows tbit behaviour to be further tailored. The current choices for this
- blackhole: for PMTUD testing, do not send Packet Too Big messages; this tests to ability of a host to infer a PMTUD blackhole and work around it.
- tcpts: advertise support for TCP timestamps when establishing a TCP connection. If the peer supports TCP timestamps, embed timestamps in data packets.
- ipts-syn: use the timestamp IP option in a SYN packet when attempting to establish a TCP connection.
- iprr-syn: use the record-route IP option in a SYN packet when attempting to establish a TCP connection.
- ipqs-syn: use the quick-start IP option in a SYN packet when attempting to establish a TCP connection.
- sack: advertise support for TCP selective acknowledgements (SACK) when establishing a TCP connection.
- fo: advertise support for TCP fast open using the official IANA number assigned for fast open.
- fo-exp: advertise support for TCP fast open using the testing number assigned by IANA for fast open.
- specifies the source address that should be used to send Packet Too Big messages in the pmtud test.
- specifies the number of attempts to make with each packet to reduce false inferences caused by packet loss.
- specifies the source address that should be used in TCP packets sent by the tbit test.
- specifies the IP time-to-live value that should be used in TCP packets sent by the tbit test.
- specifies a url to use when using the http application method. If the url starts with https, the tbit test begins with a TLS handshake.
- specifies an unsigned integer to include with the data collected; the meaning of the user-id is entirely up to the user and has no effect on the behaviour of tbit.
- specifies the window scale option to use when establishing the TCP connection.
The tracelb command is used to infer all per-flow load-balanced
paths between a source and destination. The following options are available
scamper tracelb command:
- specifies the level of confidence we want to attain that there are no more parallel load balanced paths at a given hop. Valid values are 95 (default) and 99, for 95% confidence and 99% confidence respectively.
- specifies the base destination port to use. Defaults to 33435, the default used by traceroute(8).
- specifies how many hops away we should start probing.
- specifies how many consecutive unresponsive hops are permitted before probing down a branch halts. Defaults to three.
- allows tracelb behaviour to be further tailored. The current choices for
this option are:
- ptr: do Domain Name System pointer (PTR) record lookups for IP addresses.
- specifies which method we should use to do the probing. Valid options are: "udp-dport", "icmp-echo", "udp-sport", "tcp-sport", and "tcp-ack-sport". Defaults to "udp-dport".
- specifies how many probes we should send in an attempt to receive a reply. Defaults to 2.
- specifies the maximum number of probes we ever want to send. Defaults to 3000.
- specifies to the source port to use when sending probes. Default based on process ID.
- specifies the value for the IP Type-of-service field for outgoing probes. Defaults to 0.
- specifies an unsigned integer to include with the data collected; the meaning of the user-id is entirely up to the user and has no effect on the behaviour of tracelb.
- specifies in seconds how long to wait for a reply to a probe. Defaults to 5.
- specifies in 1/100ths of seconds how long to wait between probes. Defaults to 25 (i.e. 250ms).
The sting command is used to infer one-way loss using an algorithm
with TCP probes. It requires the firewall be enabled in scamper using the
-F option. The following options are available for
scamper sting command:
- specifies the number of samples to make. By default 48 samples are sent, as this value is the current default of the FreeBSD TCP reassembly queue length. Sting 0.7 uses 100 samples.
- specifies the base destination port to use. Defaults to 80, the default port used by the HTTP protocol.
- specifies the delay distribution of samples. By default a uniform distribution is constructed. Other distributions are currently not implemented in scamper's implementation of sting.
- specifies the default request to make. Currently not implemented.
- specifies the size of the initial hole left in the request. The default is 3 bytes, the same as sting-0.7.
- specifies the inter-phase delay between data seeding and hole filling, in milliseconds. By default, sting waits 2000ms between phases.
- specifies the mean rate to send packets in the data phase, in milliseconds. By default, sting waits 100ms between probes.
- specifies to the source port to use when sending probes. Default is based on the process ID.
The sniff command is used to capture packets matching a specific
signature. At present, the only supported signature is ICMP echo packets
with a specific ID value, or packets containing such a quote. The following
options are available for the
- specifies the maximum number of packets to capture.
- specifies the maximum time, in seconds, to capture packets.
- specifies the IP address that packets must arrive using. scamper uses the IP address to identify the appropriate interface to listen for packets.
- specifies an unsigned integer to include with the data collected; the meaning of the user-id is entirely up to the user and has no effect on the behaviour of sniff.
The sole supported expression is icmp[icmpid] == X, where X is the ICMP-ID to select.
DATA COLLECTION FEATURES¶
scamper has two data output formats. The
first is a human-readable format suitable for one-off data collection and
measurement. The second, known as
warts, is a binary
format that records much more meta-data and is more precise than the
scamper is designed for Internet-scale
measurement, where large lists of targets are supplied for probing.
scamper has the ability to probe multiple lists
simultaneously, with each having a mix rate that specifies the priority of
scamper can also make multiple cycles over
a list of addresses.
When writing output to a
scamper records details of the list and cycle that
each measurement task belongs to.
When started with the
scamper allows inter-process communication via a TCP
socket bound to the supplied port on the local host. This socket is useful
for controlling the operation of a long-lived
scamper process. A client may interact with scamper
by using telnet(1) to open a connection to the supplied
The following control socket commands are available.
- The exit command closes the current control socket connection.
- The attach command changes how
scamperaccepts and replies to commands, returning results straight over the control socket. See ATTACH section below for details on which commands are accepted.
- The get command returns the current setting for the supplied argument. Valid argument values are: holdtime, monitorname, pid, pps, sport, version.
- The set command sets the current setting for the supplied argument. Valid argument values are: holdtime, monitorname, pps.
source addcommand allows a new input source to be added. It accepts the following arguments:
- The name of the source. This parameter is mandatory.
- An optional string describing the source.
- The command to execute for each address supplied. If not supplied, the default command is used.
- An optional numeric list identifier, assigned by a human. If not supplied, a value of zero is used.
- An optional numeric initial cycle identifier to use, assigned by a human. If not supplied, a value of one is used.
- An optional numeric value that specifies the mix rate of measurements from the source compared to other sources. If not supplied, a mix rate of one is used. A value of zero causes the source to be created, but not actively used.
- The name of the output file to write results to, previously
outfile open. If not supplied, the default output file is used.
- The name of the input file to read target addresses from. This parameter is mandatory if the source is a managed source.
- The number of cycles to make over the target address file. If
scamperwill loop indefinitely over the file. This parameter is ignored unless a managed source is defined.
- This parameter specifies if the target address file should be re-read whenever a cycle is completed, or if the same set of target addresses as the previous cycle should be used. If not specified, the file is not automatically reloaded at cycle time.
source updatecommand allows some properties of an existing source to be modified. The source to update is specified with the name parameter. Valid parameters are: autoreload, cycles, and priority.
source listcommand provides a listing of all currently defined sources. The optional third name parameter restricts the listing to the source specified.
source cyclecommand manually inserts a cycle marker in an adhoc source.
source deletecommand deletes the named source, if possible.
- The outfile commands provide the ability to manage output files. It
accepts the following arguments:
outfile opencommand allows a new output file to be defined. It accepts the following parameters:
- The alias of the output file. This parameter is mandatory.
- The filename of the output file. This parameter is mandatory.
- How the file will be opened. If the append mode is used, any existing file with the specified name will be appended to. If the truncate mode is used, any existing file will be truncated when it is opened.
outfile closecommand allows an existing output file to be closed. The mandatory alias parameter specifies which output file to close. An output file that is currently referenced is not able to be closed. To close a file that is currently referenced, a new outfile must be opened, and then the
outfile swapcommand be used.
outfile swapcommand swaps the file associated with each output file.
outfile listcommand outputs a list of the existing outfiles.
- This command allows for monitoring of source events. When executed, the
control socket will then supply event notices whenever a source is added,
updated, deleted, finished, or cycled. Each event is prefixed with a count
of the number of seconds elapsed since the Unix epoch. The following
examples illustrate the event monitoring capabilities:
EVENT 1169065640 source add name 'foo' list_id 5 priority 1
EVENT 1169065641 source update 'foo' priority 15
EVENT 1169065642 source cycle 'bar' id 2
EVENT 1169065650 source finish 'bar'
EVENT 1169065661 source delete 'foo'
- The shutdown argument allows the
scamperprocess to be exited cleanly. The following arguments are supported
shutdown donecommand requests that
scampershuts down when the current tasks, as well as all remaining cycles, have completed.
shutdown flushcommand requests that
scamperflushes all remaining tasks queued with each list, finishes all current tasks, and then shuts down.
shutdown nowcommand causes
scamperto shutdown immediately. Unfinished tasks are purged.
shutdown cancelcommand cancels any pending shutdown.
In attach mode, none of the usual interactive mode commands are
usable. Instead, commands may be entered directly and results will be sent
back directly over the control socket. Commands are specified just as they
would be with the -I flag for a command-line invocation of
scamper. Replies are split into lines by single \n
characters and have one of the following formats:
- A line starting with the 3 characters "ERR" indicates an error has occurred. The rest of the line will contain an error message.
- A line with the 2 characters "OK" indicates that scamper has
accepted the command.
scamperversions after 20110623 return an id number associated with the command, which allow the task to be halted by subsequently issuing a "halt" instruction.
- A line with just the 4 characters "MORE" indicates that scamper has the capacity to accept more probing commands to run in parallel.
- A line starting with the 4 characters "DATA" follow by a space then a base-10 number indicates the start of result. length specifies the number of characters of the data, including newlines. The data is in binary warts format and uuencoded before transmission.
To exit attached mode the client must send a single line containing "done". To halt a command that has not yet completed, issue a "halt" instruction with the id number returned when the command was accepted as the sole parameter.
To use the default traceroute command to trace the path to 192.0.2.1:
scamper -i 192.0.2.1
To infer Path MTU changes in the network and associate them with a traceroute path:
scamper -I "trace -P udp-paris -M 192.0.2.1"
To use paris traceroute with ICMP probes, using 3 probes per hop, sending all probes, writing to a specified warts file:
scamper -O warts -o file.warts -I "trace -P icmp-paris -q 3 -Q 192.0.2.1"
To ping a series of addresses defined in filename, probing each address 10 times:
scamper -c "ping -c 10" filename
Care must be taken with shell quoting when using commands with multiple levels of quoting, such as when giving a probe description with a dealias command. The following sends UDP probes to alternating IP addresses, one second apart, and requires the IP-ID values returned to be strictly in sequence.
scamper -O warts -o ally.warts -I "dealias -O inseq -W 1000 -m ally -p '-P udp -i 192.0.2.1' -p '-P udp -i 192.0.2.4'"
Alternatively, the following accomplishes the same, but without specifying the UDP probe method twice.
scamper -O warts -o ally.warts -I "dealias -O inseq -W 1000 -m ally -p '-P udp' 192.0.2.1 192.0.2.4"
The following command scans 198.51.100.0/28 for a matching alias to 192.0.2.4, but skips 198.51.100.3.
scamper -O warts -o prefixscan.warts -I "dealias -O inseq -W 1000 -m prefixscan -p '-P udp' -x 198.51.100.3 192.0.2.4 198.51.100.0/28"
The following uses UDP probes to enumerate all per-flow load-balanced paths towards 192.0.2.6 to 99% confidence; it varies the source port with each probe.
scamper -I "tracelb -P udp-sport -c 99 192.0.2.6"
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M. Luckie, K. Cho, and B. Owens, Inferring and Debugging Path MTU Discovery Failures, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2005.
B. Donnet, P. Raoult, T. Friedman, and M. Crovella, Efficient algorithms for large-scale topology discovery, Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS 2005.
B. Augustin, X. Cuvellier, B. Orgogozo, F. Viger, T. Friedman, M. Latapy, C. Magnien, and R. Teixeira, Avoiding traceroute anomalies with Paris traceroute, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2006.
B. Augustin, T. Friedman, and R. Teixeira, Measuring Load-balanced Paths in the Internet, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2007.
A. Bender, R. Sherwood, and N. Spring, Fixing Ally's growing pains with velocity modeling, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2008.
M. Luckie, Scamper: a Scalable and Extensible Packet Prober for Active Measurement of the Internet, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2010.
R. Beverly, W. Brinkmeyer, M. Luckie, and J.P. Rohrer, IPv6 Alias Resolution via Induced Fragmentation, Proc. Passive and Active Measurement Conference 2013.
M. Luckie, R. Beverly, W. Brinkmeyer, and k claffy, Speedtrap: Internet-scale IPv6 Alias Resolution, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2013.
M. Luckie, R. Beverly, T. Wu, M. Allman, and k. claffy, Resilience of Deployed TCP to Blind Attacks, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2015.
J. Czyz, M. Luckie, M. Allman, and M. Bailey, Don't Forget to Lock the Back Door! A Characterization of IPv6 Network Security Policy, Proc. Network and Distributed Systems Security (NDSS) Conference 2016.
M. Luckie, A. Dhamdhere, B. Huffaker, D. Clark, and k. claffy, bdrmap: Inference of Borders Between IP Networks, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference 2016.
M. Luckie and R. Beverly, The Impact of Router Outages on the AS-level Internet, Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM Conference 2017.
scamper was written by Matthew Luckie
<email@example.com>. Alistair King contributed an initial
implementation of Doubletree; Ben Stasiewicz contributed an initial
implementation of TBIT's PMTUD test; Stephen Eichler contributed an initial
implementation of TBIT's ECN test; Boris Pfahringer adapted
scamper to use GNU autotools, modularised the tests,
and updated this man page. Brian Hammond of Internap Network Services
Corporation provided an initial implementation of scamper's json output
format. Tiange Wu contributed an initial implementation of the blind
in-window TBIT test, and Robert Beverly contributed BGP protocol support for
scamper development was initially funded
by the WIDE project in association with CAIDA. Boris' work was funded by the
University of Waikato's Centre for Open Source Innovation.
|July 2, 2017||Debian|