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Pamaddnoise User Manual(1) General Commands Manual Pamaddnoise User Manual(1)


pamaddnoise - add noise to a Netpbm image


pamaddnoise { [-type gaussian]

[-sigma1 value]

[-sigma2 value] | -type multiplicative_gaussian

[-mgsigma value] | -type impulse

[-tolerance ratio] | -type laplacian

[-lsigma value] | -type poisson

[-lambda value] } [-seed int]



This program is part of Netpbm(1).

pamaddnoise adds the specified noise type to a Netpbm image. pamaddnoise treats a PPM image as 3 independent planes, not as a plane of colors in a color space.


In addition to the options common to all programs based on libnetpbm (most notably -quiet, see
Common Options
), pamaddnoise recognizes the following command line options:

This is the expected value of the Poisson distribution for a sample value
of mximum intensity. The expected value for other intensities is
proportional; e.g. for half intensity, it is half this value.

This is meaningful only with -type=poisson.

The default value is 12.

Used for laplacian noise only. The default value is 10.0.

Used for multiplicative gaussian noise only. The default value is 0.5.

Used for all noise types. Set the initial random number generator seed value.

Used for gaussian noise only. The default value is 4.0.

Used for gaussian noise only. The default value is 20.0.

Used for impulse noise only. The default value is 0.10. This means that 5% of all pixel values will be set to 0 and 5% will be set to the maxval

Select type of noise by name. The following noise types are available: gaussian, multiplicative_gaussian, impulse, laplacian, poisson. Only enough letters to be unique are required for the noise type option. The default noise type is gaussian.

  • gaussian
  • multiplicative_gaussian
  • impulse
  • laplacian
  • poisson


  • "Adaptive Image Restoration in Signal-Dependent Noise" by R. Kasturi Institute for Electronic Science, Texas Tech University, 1982

  • "Digital Image Processing Algorithms" by Ioannis Pitas, Prentice Hall, 1993 ISBN 0-13-145814-0


pgmnoise(1), pgmmedian(1), pnm(1), pam(1),


pamaddnoise was added to Netpbm in Version 10.29 (August 2005). It had been distributed by Mike Burns via his own web site before that (and continued to be so).

Burns' version, and the one in Netpbm 10.29, was called pnmaddnoise and worked only on PNM images. In Netpbm 10.30, it was converted to handle PAM images and renamed to pamaddnoise.


Copyright (C) 1995 by Mike Burns <>


This manual page was generated by the Netpbm tool 'makeman' from HTML source. The master documentation is at
12 December 2020 netpbm documentation