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virt-win-reg(1) Virtualization Support virt-win-reg(1)

名前

virt-win-reg - Windows 仮想マシンからの Windows レジストリエントリーのエクスポートおよびマージ

書式

 virt-win-reg domname 'HKLM\Path\To\Subkey'

 virt-win-reg domname 'HKLM\Path\To\Subkey' name

 virt-win-reg domname 'HKLM\Path\To\Subkey' @

 virt-win-reg --merge domname [input.reg ...]

 virt-win-reg [--options] disk.img ... # 仮想マシン名の代わり

警告

You must not use "virt-win-reg" with the --merge option on live virtual machines. If you do this, you will get irreversible disk corruption in the VM. "virt-win-reg" tries to stop you from doing this, but doesn't catch all cases.

Modifying the Windows Registry is an inherently risky operation. The format is deliberately obscure and undocumented, and Registry changes can leave the system unbootable. Therefore when using the --merge option, make sure you have a reliable backup first.

説明

このプログラムは Windows 仮想マシンから Windows レジストリのエントリーをエクスポートおよびマージできます。

第一パラメーターは Windows 仮想マシンの libvirt 仮想マシン名または生のディスクイメージです。

If --merge is not specified, then the chosen registry key is displayed/exported (recursively). For example:

 $ virt-win-reg Windows7 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft'

You can also display single values from within registry keys, for example:

 $ cvkey='HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion'
 $ virt-win-reg Windows7 $cvkey ProductName
 Windows 7 Enterprise

--merge を用いると、テキストの regedit ファイルを Windows レジストリーの中に結合できます:

 $ virt-win-reg --merge Windows7 changes.reg

注記

This program is only meant for simple access to the registry. If you want to do complicated things with the registry, we suggest you download the Registry hive files from the guest using libguestfs(3) or guestfish(1) and access them locally, eg. using hivex(3), hivexsh(1) or hivexregedit(1).

オプション

--help
簡単なヘルプを表示します。
--version
バージョン番号を表示して、終了します。
--debug
デバッグメッセージを有効にします。
-c URI
--connect URI
libvirt を使用していると、指定された URI に接続します。 省略すると、デフォルトの libvirt ハイパーバイザーに接続します。

仮想マシンのブロックデバイスを直接指定すると、libvirt はまったく使用されません。

--format raw
Specify the format of disk images given on the command line. If this is omitted then the format is autodetected from the content of the disk image.

If disk images are requested from libvirt, then this program asks libvirt for this information. In this case, the value of the format parameter is ignored.

If working with untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should ensure the format is always specified.

--merge
In merge mode, this merges a textual regedit file into the Windows Registry of the virtual machine. If this flag is not given then virt-win-reg displays or exports Registry entries instead.

Note that --merge is unsafe to use on live virtual machines, and will result in disk corruption. However exporting (without this flag) is always safe.

--encoding UTF-16LE|ASCII
When merging (only), you may need to specify the encoding for strings to be used in the hive file. This is explained in detail in "ENCODING STRINGS" in Win::Hivex::Regedit(3).

The default is to use UTF-16LE, which should work with recent versions of Windows.

--unsafe-printable-strings
When exporting (only), assume strings are UTF-16LE and print them as strings instead of hex sequences. Remove the final zero codepoint from strings if present.

This is unsafe and does not preserve the fidelity of strings in the original Registry for various reasons:

  • Assumes the original encoding is UTF-16LE. ASCII strings and strings in other encodings will be corrupted by this transformation.
  • Assumes that everything which has type 1 or 2 is really a string and that everything else is not a string, but the type field in real Registries is not reliable.
  • Loses information about whether a zero codepoint followed the string in the Registry or not.

This all happens because the Registry itself contains no information about how strings are encoded (see "ENCODING STRINGS" in Win::Hivex::Regedit(3)).

You should only use this option for quick hacking and debugging of the Registry contents, and never use it if the output is going to be passed into another program or stored in another Registry.

サポートされるシステム

The program currently supports Windows NT-derived guests starting with Windows XP through to at least Windows 8.

以下のレジストリキーがサポートされます:

"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM"
"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY"
"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE"
"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM"
"HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT"
"HKEY_USERS\SID"
ここで SID は Windows User SID です (例: "S-1-5-18")。
"HKEY_USERS\username"
ここで username はローカルユーザー名です (これは libguestfs の拡張です)。

You can use "HKLM" as a shorthand for "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE", and "HKU" for "HKEY_USERS".

The literal keys "HKEY_USERS\$SID" and "HKEY_CURRENT_USER" are not supported (there is no "current user").

WINDOWS 8

Windows 8 "fast startup" can prevent virt-win-reg from being able to edit the Registry. See "WINDOWS HIBERNATION AND WINDOWS 8 FAST STARTUP" in guestfs(3).

エンコーディング

"virt-win-reg" expects that regedit files have already been reencoded in the local encoding. Usually on Linux hosts, this means UTF-8 with Unix-style line endings. Since Windows regedit files are often in UTF-16LE with Windows-style line endings, you may need to reencode the whole file before or after processing.

To reencode a file from Windows format to Linux (before processing it with the --merge option), you would do something like this:

 iconv -f utf-16le -t utf-8 < win.reg | dos2unix > linux.reg

To go in the opposite direction, after exporting and before sending the file to a Windows user, do something like this:

 unix2dos linux.reg | iconv -f utf-8 -t utf-16le > win.reg

エンコーディングの詳細は Win::Hivex::Regedit(3) を参照してください。

If you are unsure about the current encoding, use the file(1) command. Recent versions of Windows regedit.exe produce a UTF-16LE file with Windows-style (CRLF) line endings, like this:

 $ file software.reg
 software.reg: Little-endian UTF-16 Unicode text, with very long lines,
 with CRLF line terminators

This file would need conversion before you could --merge it.

CurrentControlSet など。

Registry keys like "CurrentControlSet" don’t really exist in the Windows Registry at the level of the hive file, and therefore you cannot modify these.

"CurrentControlSet" is usually an alias for "ControlSet001". In some circumstances it might refer to another control set. The way to find out is to look at the "HKLM\SYSTEM\Select" key:

 # virt-win-reg WindowsGuest 'HKLM\SYSTEM\Select'
 [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\Select]
 "Current"=dword:00000001
 "Default"=dword:00000001
 "Failed"=dword:00000000
 "LastKnownGood"=dword:00000002

"Current" is the one which Windows will choose when it boots.

Similarly, other "Current..." keys in the path may need to be replaced.

レジストリーキーおよび値の削除方法

レジストリキー全体を削除するには、この構文を使用します:

 [-HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Foo]

キーにある単一の値を削除するには、この構文を使用します:

 [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Foo]
 "Value"=-

Windows のヒント

Note that some of these tips modify the guest disk image. The guest must be shut off, else you will get disk corruption.

RUNNING A BATCH SCRIPT WHEN A USER LOGS IN

Prepare a DOS batch script, VBScript or executable. Upload this using guestfish(1). For this example the script is called "test.bat" and it is uploaded into "C:\":

 guestfish -i -d WindowsGuest upload test.bat /test.bat

Prepare a regedit file containing the registry change:

 cat > test.reg <<'EOF'
 [HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce]
 "Test"="c:\\test.bat"
 EOF

In this example we use the key "RunOnce" which means that the script will run precisely once when the first user logs in. If you want it to run every time a user logs in, replace "RunOnce" with "Run".

Now update the registry:

 virt-win-reg --merge WindowsGuest test.reg

サービスのインストール方法

This section assumes you are familiar with Windows services, and you either have a program which handles the Windows Service Control Protocol directly or you want to run any program using a service wrapper like SrvAny or the free RHSrvAny.

First upload the program and optionally the service wrapper. In this case the test program is called "test.exe" and we are using the RHSrvAny wrapper:

 guestfish -i -d WindowsGuest <<EOF
   upload rhsrvany.exe /rhsrvany.exe
   upload test.exe /test.exe
 EOF

Prepare a regedit file containing the registry changes. In this example, the first registry change is needed for the service itself or the service wrapper (if used). The second registry change is only needed because I am using the RHSrvAny service wrapper.

 cat > service.reg <<'EOF'
 [HKLM\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\services\RHSrvAny]
 "Type"=dword:00000010
 "Start"=dword:00000002
 "ErrorControl"=dword:00000001
 "ImagePath"="c:\\rhsrvany.exe"
 "DisplayName"="RHSrvAny"
 "ObjectName"="NetworkService"
 
 [HKLM\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\services\RHSrvAny\Parameters]
 "CommandLine"="c:\\test.exe"
 "PWD"="c:\\Temp"
 EOF

注:

  • For use of "ControlSet001" see the section above in this manual page. You may need to adjust this according to the control set that is in use by the guest.
  • "ObjectName" controls the privileges that the service will have. An alternative is "ObjectName"="LocalSystem" which would be the most privileged account.
  • マジックナンバーの意味は次の Microsoft KB 記事を参照してください: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/103000.

レジストリを更新します:

 virt-win-reg --merge WindowsGuest service.reg

SHELL QUOTING

シェルにおいて "\" (backslash) を含むパラメーターを渡すとき、注意する必要があります。通常シェルからそれらを保護するには、'単一引用符' または二つのバックスラッシュ (しかし、両方ではない) を使用する必要があります。

パスおよび値の名前は大文字小文字を区別します。

関連項目

hivex(3), hivexsh(1), hivexregedit(1), guestfs(3), guestfish(1), virt-cat(1), virt-tail(1), Sys::Guestfs(3), Win::Hivex(3), Win::Hivex::Regedit(3), Sys::Virt(3), http://libguestfs.org/.

著者

Richard W.M. Jones http://people.redhat.com/~rjones/

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2010 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE

BUGS

To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

When reporting a bug, please supply:

  • The version of libguestfs.
  • Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)
  • Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.
  • Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug report.
2020-03-09 libguestfs-1.42.0