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Test::Workflow(3pm) User Contributed Perl Documentation Test::Workflow(3pm)


Test::Workflow - Provide test grouping, reusability, and structuring such as RSPEC and cases.


Test::Workflow provides tools for grouping and structuring tests. There is also a facility to write re-usable tests. Test::Workflow test files define classes. Tests within the files are defined as a type of method.

Test::Workflow provides an RSPEC implementation. This implementation includes "describe" blocks, "it" blocks, as well as "before_each", "before_all", "after_each", "after_all". There are even two new types: "around_each" and "around_all".

Test::Workflow provides a cases workflow. This workflow allows you to create multiple cases, and multiple tests. Each test will be run under each case. This allows you to write a test that should pass under multiple conditions, then write a case that builds that specific condition.

Test::Workflow provides a way to 'inherit' tests. You can write classes that use Test::Workflow, and define test groups, but not run them. These classes can then be imported into as many test classes as you want. This is achieved with the "with_tests" function.

Test::Workflow gives you control over the order in which test groups will be run. You can use the predefined 'random', 'ordered', or 'sort' settings. You may also provide your own ordering function. This is achieved using the "test_sort" function.


    package MyTest;
    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use Test::More;
    use Test::Workflow;
    with_tests qw/ Test::TemplateA Test::TemplateB /;
    test_sort 'rand';
    # Tests can be at the package level
    use_ok( 'MyClass' );
    tests loner => sub {
        my $self = shift;
        ok( 1, "1 is the loneliest number... " );
    tests not_ready => (
        todo => "Feature not implemented",
        code => sub { ... },
    tests very_not_ready => (
        skip => "These tests will die if run"
        code => sub { ... },


Here setup/teardown methods are declared in the order in which they are run, but they can really be declared anywhere within the describe block and the behavior will be identical.

    describe example => sub {
        my $self = shift;
        my $number = 0;
        my $letter = 'A';
        before_all setup => sub { $number = 1 };
        before_each letter_up => sub { $letter++ };
        # it() is an alias for tests()
        it check => sub {
            my $self = shift;
            is( $letter, 'B', "Letter was incremented" );
            is( $number, 2,   "number was incremented" );
        after_each reset => sub { $number = 1 };
        after_all teardown => sub {
            is( $number, 1, "number is back to 1" );
        describe nested => sub {
            # This nested describe block will inherit before_each and
            # after_each from the parent block.
        describe maybe_later => (
            todo => "We might get to this",
            code => { ... },
    describe addon => sub {
        my $self = shift;
        around_each localize_env => sub {
            my $self = shift;
            my ( $inner ) = @_;
            local %ENV = ( %ENV, foo => 'bar' );
        tests foo => sub {
            is( $ENV{foo}, 'bar', "in the localized environment" );


Cases are used when you have a test that you wish to run under several tests conditions. The following is a trivial example. Each test will be run once under each case. Beware! this will run (cases x tests), with many tests and cases this can be a huge set of actual tests. In this example 8 in total will be run.

Note: The 'cases' keyword is an alias to describe. case blocks can go into any workflow and will work as expected.

    cases check_several_numbers => sub {
        my $number;
        case two   => sub { $number = 2 };
        case four  => sub { $number = 4 };
        case six   => sub { $number = 6 };
        case eight => sub { $number = 8 };
        tests is_even => sub {
            ok( !$number % 2, "number is even" );
        tests only_digits => sub {
            like( $number, qr/^\d+$/i, "number is all digits" );


Use tests defined in the specified classes.
Declare how tests should be sorted.
Define a block that encapsulates workflow elements.
Define a test block.
Define a case, each test will be run once per case that is defined at the same level (within the same describe or cases block).
These define setup and teardown functions that will be run around tests.
These are special additions to the setup and teardown methods. They are used like so:

    around_each localize_env => sub {
        my $self = shift;
        my ( $inner ) = @_;
        local %ENV = ( %ENV, foo => 'bar' );
This will finalize the meta-data (forbid addition of new tests) and run the tests.


Chad Granum


Copyright (C) 2013 Chad Granum

Test-Workflow is free software; Standard perl license.

Test-Workflow is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the license for more details.

2018-06-11 perl v5.26.2