table of contents
- GIT COMMANDS
- HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
- LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)
- CONFIGURATION MECHANISM
- IDENTIFIER TERMINOLOGY
- SYMBOLIC IDENTIFIERS
- FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE
- ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
- FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
- REPORTING BUGS
- SEE ALSO
NAME¶git - the stupid content tracker
git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>] [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path] [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare] [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>] [--super-prefix=<path>] <command> [<args>]
DESCRIPTION¶Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and full access to internals.
After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be viewed at https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html.
Other options are available to control how the manual page is displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help ... is converted internally into git help ....
This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:
git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
Note that omitting the = in git -c foo.bar ... is allowed and sets foo.bar to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like git -c foo.bar= ...) sets foo.bar to the empty string.
GIT COMMANDS¶We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level ("plumbing") commands.
HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)¶We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some ancillary user utilities.
Main porcelain commands¶git-add(1)
Interacting with Others¶These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people via patch over e-mail.
LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)¶Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index(1) and git-read-tree(1).
The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.
The following description divides the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between repositories.
In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the working tree.
The following are helper commands used by the above; end users typically do not use them directly.
Internal helper commands¶These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users typically do not use them directly.
CONFIGURATION MECHANISM¶Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like this:
# # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment. # ; core variables [core] ; Don't trust file modes filemode = false ; user identity [user] name = "Junio C Hamano" email = "firstname.lastname@example.org"
Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
SYMBOLIC IDENTIFIERS¶Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following symbolic notation:
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).
FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE¶Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.
Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.
Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the $GIT_DIR.
TERMINOLOGY¶Please see gitglossary(7).
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES¶Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
The Git Repository¶These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
Git Commits¶GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL
path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
The file parameters can point at the user’s working file (e.g. new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g. old-file when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the index). GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1 parameter, <path>.
For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.
$GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included. $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for further details.
If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.
If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this file descriptor.
Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and will try to write the trace messages into it.
Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of clones and fetches.
DISCUSSION¶More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter of the user-manual and gitcore-tutorial(7).
A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git" subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other things, a compressed object database representing the complete history of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such as tags and branch heads.
The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number of parent commits.
The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the project’s history, and each parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique. The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose.
When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the content stored in the index.
The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
FURTHER DOCUMENTATION¶See the references in the "description" section to get started using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual and gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
See also the howto documents for some useful examples.
The internals are documented in the Git API documentation.
Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).
AUTHORS¶Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list <email@example.com>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary gives you a more complete list of contributors.
REPORTING BUGS¶Report bugs to the Git mailing list <firstname.lastname@example.org> where the development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be subscribed to the list to send a message there.
SEE ALSO¶gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7), gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User’s Manual, gitworkflows(7)
GIT¶Part of the git(1) suite
- Git User’s Manual
- Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
- Git API documentation