|MEMGUARD(9)||Kernel Developer's Manual||MEMGUARD(9)|
MemGuardis a simple and small replacement memory allocator designed to help detect tamper-after-free scenarios. These problems are more and more common and likely with multithreaded kernels where race conditions are more prevalent.
MemGuard can take over
free() for a single malloc type. Alternatively
MemGuard can take over
uma_free() for a single uma zone.
MemGuard can guard all allocations larger than
PAGE_SIZE, and can guard a random fraction of all
allocations. There is also a knob to prevent allocations smaller than a
specified size from being guarded, to limit memory waste.
MemGuardfor a memory type, either add an entry to /boot/loader.conf:
Or set the vm.memguard.desc sysctl(8) variable at run-time:
Where memory_type can be either a short description of the memory type to monitor, either name of uma(9) zone. Only allocations from that memory_type made after vm.memguard.desc is set will potentially be guarded. If vm.memguard.desc is modified at run-time then only allocations of the new memory_type will potentially be guarded once the sysctl(8) is set. Existing guarded allocations will still be properly released by either free(9) or uma_zfree(9), depending on what kind of allocation was taken over.
To determine short description of a malloc(9)
type one can either take it from the first column of
-m output, or to find it
in the kernel source. It is the second argument to
MALLOC_DEFINE(9) macro. To determine name of
uma(9) zone one can either take it from the first column
-z output, or to find
it in the kernel source. It is the first argument to the
The vm.memguard.divisor boot-time tunable is
used to scale how much of the system's physical memory
MemGuard is allowed to consume. The default is 10,
so up to vm_cnt.v_page_count/10 pages can be used.
MemGuard will reserve
vm.memguard.divisor bytes of virtual address space,
limited by twice the physical memory size. The physical limit is reported as
vm.memguard.phys_limit and the virtual space reserved
MemGuard is reported as
MemGuard will not do page promotions for
any allocation smaller than vm.memguard.minsize bytes.
The default is 0, meaning all allocations can potentially be guarded.
MemGuard can guard sufficiently large allocations
randomly, with average frequency of every one in 100000 /
vm.memguard.frequency allocations. The default is 0,
meaning no allocations are randomly guarded.
MemGuard can optionally add unmapped guard
pages around each allocation to detect overflow and underflow, if
vm.memguard.options has the 1 bit set. This option is
enabled by default.
MemGuard will optionally guard
all allocations of
PAGE_SIZE or larger if
vm.memguard.options has the 2 bit set. This option is
off by default. By default
MemGuard doesn't guard
those uma(9) zones that have been initialized with the
UMA_ZONE_NOFREE flag set, since it can produce false
positives on them. However, this safety measure can be turned off by setting
bit 3 of the vm.memguard.options tunable.
SEE ALSO¶sysctl(8), vmstat(8), contigmalloc(9), malloc(9), redzone(9), uma(9)
MemGuardfirst appeared in FreeBSD 6.0.
MemGuardwas originally written by Bosko Milekic <bmilekic@FreeBSD.org>. This manual page was originally written by Christian Brueffer <brueffer@FreeBSD.org>. Additions have been made by Matthew Fleming <mdf@FreeBSD.org> and Gleb Smirnoff <glebius@FreeBSD.org> to both the implementation and the documentation.
|June 1, 2016||Linux 4.9.0-9-amd64|