a calendar and the date of Easter
utility displays a simple calendar in traditional
format and ncal
offers an alternative layout, more options
and the date of Easter. The new format is a little cramped but it makes a year
fit on a 25x80 terminal. If arguments are not specified, the current month is
The options are as follows:
- Turns off highlighting of today.
- Display Julian Calendar, if combined with the
-o option, display date of Orthodox Easter according to
the Julian Calendar.
- Display date of Easter (for western churches).
- Display Julian days (days one-based, numbered from January
- Display the specified month. If
month is specified as a decimal number, appending
p’ displays the same month of the
following or previous year respectively.
- Display date of Orthodox Easter (Greek and Russian Orthodox
- Print the country codes and switching days from Julian to
Gregorian Calendar as they are assumed by ncal. The
country code as determined from the local environment is marked with an
- Assume the switch from Julian to Gregorian Calendar at the
date associated with the country_code. If not
specified, ncal tries to guess the switch date from the
local environment or falls back to September 2, 1752. This was when Great
Britain and her colonies switched to the Gregorian Calendar.
- Print the number of the week below each week column.
- Display a calendar for the specified year. This option is
implied when a year but no month are specified on the command line.
- Display the previous, current and next month surrounding
- Display only the current month. This is the default.
- Months to add after. The specified number of months is
added to the end of the display. This is in addition to any date range
selected by the -y, -3, or
-1 options. For example, “
-B2 -A2” shows everything from November of the previous year
to February of the following year. Negative numbers are allowed, in which
case the specified number of months is subtracted. For example,
cal -y -B-6” shows July to December.
cal -A11” simply shows the next
- Months to add before. The specified number of months is
added to the beginning of the display. See -A for
- Completely switch to cal mode. For
cal like output only, use -b
- Switch to ncal mode.
- Use yyyy-mm as the current date (for
debugging of date selection).
- Use yyyy-mm-dd as the current date
(for debugging of highlighting).
- Weeks start on Monday.
- Weeks start on Sunday.
- Use oldstyle format for ncal output.
A single parameter specifies the year (1–9999) to be displayed; note the
year must be fully specified: “
display a calendar for 1989. Two parameters denote
the month and year; the month is either a number between 1 and 12, or a full
or abbreviated name as specified by the current locale. Month and year default
to those of the current system clock and time zone (so
cal -m 8
” will display a calendar for the
month of August in the current year).
Not all options can be used together. For example, the options
, and -1
mutually exclusive. If inconsistent options are given, the later ones take
precedence over the earlier ones.
A year starts on January 1.
command appeared in Version 5
. The ncal
command appeared in
. The output of the cal
command is supposed to be bit for bit compatible to the original Unix
command, because its output is processed by other
programs like CGI scripts, that should not be broken. Therefore it will always
output 8 lines, even if only 7 contain data. This extra blank line also
appears with the original cal
command, at least on Solaris 8
command and manual were written by
The assignment of Julian–Gregorian switching dates to country codes is
historically naive for many countries.
Not all options are compatible and using them in different orders will give