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APTITUDE(8) Command-line reference APTITUDE(8)

名前

aptitude - パッケージマネージャの高レベルインタフェース

概要

aptitude [<options>...] {autoclean | clean | forget-new | keep-all | update}
aptitude [<options>...] {full-upgrade | safe-upgrade} [< packages>...]
aptitude [<options>...] {build-dep | build-depends | changelog | download | forbid-version | hold | install | markauto | purge | reinstall | remove | show | showsrc | source | unhold | unmarkauto | versions} < packages>...
aptitude extract-cache-subset <output-directory> < packages>...
aptitude [<オプション>...] search < パターン>...
aptitude [<options>...] {add-user-tag | remove-user-tag} < tag> <packages>...
aptitude [<options>...] {why | why-not} [< patterns>...] <package>
aptitude [-S <fname>] [--autoclean-on-startup | --clean-on-startup | -i | -u]
aptitude help

説明

aptitude は Debian GNU/Linux のパッケージシステムに対するテキストベースのインタフェースです。
ユーザはパッケージの一覧を表示したり、パッケージのインストール・更新・削除などといったパッケージ管理作業を行ったりできます。アクションはビジュアルインタフェースとコマンドラインから行えます。

COMMAND-LINE ACTIONS

ハイフン (「 -」) から始まらない最初の引数は、プログラムが行うアクションだと見なされます。アクションがコマンドラインで与えられない場合、 aptitude はビジュアルモードで起動します。
以下のアクションが利用可能です。
install
Install one or more packages. The packages should be listed after the 「install」 command; if a package name contains a tilde character (「 ~」) or a question mark (「?」), it will be treated as a search pattern and every package matching the pattern will be installed (see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual).
To select a particular version of the package, append 「 =< version>」 to the package name: for instance, 「 aptitude install apt=0.3.1」. Similarly, to select a package from a particular archive, append 「 /< archive>」 to the package name: for instance, 「 aptitude install apt/experimental」. You cannot specify both an archive and a version for a package.
必ずしも、コマンドラインに連ねられたパッケージすべてがインストール対象でなければいけないわけではありません。パッケージ名に「上書き指定子」を付記すると、そのパッケージに対して aptitude に別のことをさせることが可能です。例えば、 aptitude remove wesnoth+ とすると、 wesnoth を削除ではなくインストールできます。以下の上書き指定子が利用可能です。
< パッケージ>+
<パッケージ> をインストールします。
If the package was not installed, it is marked as manually installed, and the dependencies newly installed are marked with the automatic flag. If the package or the dependencies were already installed, the automatic flag is preserved. See the section about automatic installations in the documentation for more information.
< パッケージ>+M
<パッケージ> をインストールし、その後すぐに、自動的にインストールされたという印をそれに添付します (< パッケージ> に依存するものがなくなった場合、そのパッケージはすぐに削除されてしまうことに注意してください)。
< パッケージ>-
<パッケージ> を削除します。
< パッケージ>_
<パッケージ> を完全削除します。すなわち、パッケージ自体とそれに関連する設定ファイルやデータファイルを削除します。
< パッケージ>=
<パッケージ> を固定します。すなわち、今後どのようなインストール・更新・削除を行っても、このパッケージは自動的には更新されません。
< パッケージ>:
<パッケージ> を現在のバージョンに一時的に固定します。つまり、インストール・削除・更新をすべて取り消します。「hold」 (前述) とは異なり、このコマンドを用いても将来パッケージが自動的に更新されなくなることはありません。
< パッケージ>&M
自動的にインストールされたという印を < パッケージ> に添付します。
< パッケージ>&m
手動でインストールされたという印を < パッケージ> に添付します。
< package>&BD
Install the build-dependencies of a < package>.
特別な場合として、引数を与えずに「 install」を実行すると、保存されているアクションや実行されていないアクションが実行されます。
 
注記
 
 
Once you enter Y at the final confirmation prompt, the 「 install」 command will modify aptitude's stored information about what actions to perform. Therefore, if you issue (e.g.) the command 「 aptitude install foo bar」 on packages previously uninstalled, and then the installation fails once aptitude has started downloading and installing packages, you will need to run 「 aptitude remove foo bar」 to go back to the previous state (and possibly undo installations or upgrades to other packages that were affected by the 「 install」 action).
remove, purge, reinstall
These commands are the same as 「 install」, but apply the named action to all packages given on the command line for which it is not overridden.
例えば、「 aptitude remove '~ndeity'」とすると、「 deity」を名前に含むパッケージがすべて削除されます。
build-depends, build-dep
Satisfy the build-dependencies of a package. Each package name may be a source package, in which case the build dependencies of that source package are installed; otherwise, binary packages are found in the same way as for the 「 install」 command, and the build-dependencies of the source packages that build those binary packages are satisfied.
If the command-line parameter --arch-only is present, only architecture-dependent build dependencies (i.e., not Build-Depends-Indep or Build-Conflicts-Indep) will be obeyed.
markauto, unmarkauto
それぞれ、自動的にインストールされた、および手動でインストールされたという印をパッケージに添付します。パッケージの指定は「install」コマンドとまったく同じ方法で行います。例えば「aptitude markauto '~slibs'」を実行すると、「 libs」セクションのパッケージすべてに、自動的にインストールされたという印が添付されます。
自動的にインストールしたパッケージについてのさらに詳しい情報は、 aptitude リファレンスマニュアルの「自動的にインストールしたパッケージの管理」セクションを参照してください。
hold, unhold, keep
Mark packages to be on hold, remove this property, or set to keep in the current state. Packages are specified in exactly the same way as for the 「 install」 command. For instance, 「 aptitude hold '~e^dpkg$'」 will mark all packages coming from the source package 「 dpkg」 to be on hold.
The difference between hold and keep is that hold will cause a package to be ignored by future safe-upgrade or full-upgrade commands, while keep merely cancels any scheduled actions on the package. unhold will allow a package to be upgraded by future safe-upgrade or full-upgrade commands, without otherwise altering its state.
keep-all
設定されていたアクションをすべてのパッケージについて取り消します。つまり、インストール・削除・更新といった面倒な状態をもったあらゆるパッケージから、そういった状態を取り除きます。
forget-new
どのパッケージが「新規」かについての内部情報を消去します (ビジュアルモードで「f」を押すのと等価です)。
This command accepts package names or patterns as arguments. If the string contains a tilde character (「 ~」) or a question mark (「 ?」), it will be treated as a search pattern and every package matching the pattern will be considered (see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual).
forbid-version
Forbid a package from being upgraded to a particular version, while allowing automatic upgrades to future versions. This is useful for example to avoid a known broken version of a package, without having to set and clear manual holds.
By default, aptitude will select the forbidden version to be the one which the package would normally be upgraded (the candidate version). This may be overridden by appending 「 =<version>」 to the package name: for instance, 「 aptitude forbid-version vim=1.2.3.broken-4」.
To revert the action, 「 aptitude install <package>」 will remove the ban. To remove the forbidden version without installing the candidate version, the current version should be appended: 「install < package>=< version>」.
update
apt 入手先から入手可能なパッケージの一覧を更新します (これは、「 apt-get update」と等価です)。
safe-upgrade
Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version. Installed packages will not be removed unless they are unused (see the section 「Managing Automatically Installed Packages」 in the aptitude reference manual). Packages which are not currently installed may be installed to resolve dependencies unless the --no-new-installs command-line option is supplied.
If no < package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will attempt to upgrade every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise, aptitude will attempt to upgrade only the packages which it is instructed to upgrade. The < package>s can be extended with suffixes in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can also give additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance, aptitude safe-upgrade bash dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash package and remove the dash package.
It is sometimes necessary to remove one package in order to upgrade another; this command is not able to upgrade packages in such situations. Use the full-upgrade command to upgrade as many packages as possible.
full-upgrade
Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version, removing or installing packages as necessary. It also installs new Essential or Required packages. This command is less conservative than safe-upgrade and thus more likely to perform unwanted actions. However, it is capable of upgrading packages that safe-upgrade cannot upgrade.
If no < package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will attempt to upgrade every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise, aptitude will attempt to upgrade only the packages which it is instructed to upgrade. The < package>s can be extended with suffixes in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can also give additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance, aptitude full-upgrade bash dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash package and remove the dash package.
 
注記
 
 
This command was originally named dist-upgrade for historical reasons, and aptitude still recognizes dist-upgrade as a synonym for full-upgrade.
search
Searches for packages matching one of the patterns supplied on the command line. All packages which match any of the given patterns will be displayed; for instance, 「 aptitude search '~N' edit」 will list all 「new」 packages and all packages whose name contains 「edit」. For more information on search patterns, see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual.
 
注記
 
 
In the example above, 「 aptitude search '~N' edit」 has two arguments after search and thus is searching for two patterns: 「 ~N」 and 「 edit」. As described in the search pattern reference, a single pattern composed of two sub-patterns separated by a space (such as 「 ~N edit」) matches only if both patterns match. Thus, the command 「 aptitude search '~N edit'」 will only show 「new」 packages whose name contains 「edit」.
-F オプションを与えない場合、 aptitude search の出力はこのようになります。
i   apt                             - Advanced front-end for dpkg
pi  apt-build                       - frontend to apt to build, optimize and in
cp  apt-file                        - APT package searching utility -- command-
ihA raptor-utils                    - Raptor RDF Parser utilities
検索結果はそれぞれ異なる行に一覧表示されます。各行の第 1 文字はパッケージの現在の状態を示します。最もありふれた状態は、システムにパッケージが存在した形跡がないという意味の p、パッケージが削除されたがシステムに設定ファイルが残っているという意味の c、パッケージがインストールされているという意味の i、パッケージが仮想パッケージであるという意味の v です。第 2 文字は、パッケージに対して行うよう保存されたアクションを示します (アクションが存在する場合で、なければ空欄が表示されます)。最もありふれた状態は、パッケージがインストール予定であるという意味の i、パッケージが削除予定であるという意味の d、パッケージおよびその設定ファイルが削除予定であるという意味の p です。第 3 文字が A である場合、そのパッケージは自動的にインストールされたものです。
For a complete list of the possible state and action flags, see the section 「Accessing Package Information」 in the aptitude reference guide. To customize the output of search, see the command-line options -F and --sort.
show
Displays detailed information about one or more packages. If a package name contains a tilde character (「 ~」) or a question mark (「 ?」), it will be treated as a search pattern and all matching packages will be displayed (see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual).
饒舌レベルが 1 以上の場合 (つまり、コマンドラインに -v が 1 つ以上与えられている場合)、そのパッケージのすべてのバージョンについて情報が表示されます。それ以外の場合は「バージョン候補」(「 aptitude install」がダウンロードするバージョン) に関する情報が表示されます。
You can display information about a different version of the package by appending =<version> to the package name; you can display the version from a particular archive or release by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name: for instance, /unstable or /sid. If either of these is present, then only the version you request will be displayed, regardless of the verbosity level.
饒舌レベルが 1 以上の場合、パッケージのアーキテクチャ・圧縮サイズ・ファイル名・md5sum の各フィールドが表示されます。饒舌レベルが 2 以上の場合、各アーカイブについて、そのアーカイブがもつ 1 つ以上の選択バージョンが一度ずつ表示されます。
showsrc
Displays detailed information about one or more source packages.
This is a thin wrapper over apt(8).
source
Downloads one or more source packages.
This is a thin wrapper over apt(8).
versions
Displays the versions of the packages listed on the command-line.
$ aptitude versions wesnoth
p   1:1.4.5-1                                                             100
p   1:1.6.5-1                                    unstable                 500
p   1:1.7.14-1                                   experimental             1
Each version is listed on a separate line. The leftmost three characters indicate the current state, planned state (if any), and whether the package was automatically installed; for more information on their meanings, see the documentation of aptitude search. To the right of the version number you can find the releases from which the version is available, and the pin priority of the version.
If a package name contains a tilde character (「 ~」) or a question mark (「 ?」), it will be treated as a search pattern and all matching versions will be displayed (see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual). This means that, for instance, aptitude versions '~i' will display all the versions that are currently installed on the system and nothing else, not even other versions of the same packages.
$ aptitude versions '~nexim4-daemon-light'
Package exim4-daemon-light:
i   4.71-3                                                                100
p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
Package exim4-daemon-light-dbg: p 4.71-4 unstable 500
If the input is a search pattern, or if more than one package's versions are to be displayed, aptitude will automatically group the output by package, as shown above. You can disable this via --group-by=none, in which case aptitude will display a single list of all the versions that were found and automatically include the package name in each output line:
$ aptitude versions --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
i   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-3                                             100
p   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-4                    unstable                 500
p   exim4-daemon-light-dbg 4.71-4                unstable                 500
To disable the package name, pass --show-package-names=never:
$ aptitude versions --show-package-names=never --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
i   4.71-3                                                                100
p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
In addition to the above options, the information printed for each version can be controlled by the command-line option -F. The order in which versions are displayed can be controlled by the command-line option --sort. To prevent aptitude from formatting the output into columns, use --disable-columns.
add-user-tag, remove-user-tag
Adds a user tag to or removes a user tag from the selected group of packages. If a package name contains a tilde (「 ~」) or question mark (「 ?」), it is treated as a search pattern and the tag is added to or removed from all the packages that match the pattern (see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual).
User tags are arbitrary strings associated with a package. They can be used with the ?user-tag(<tag>) search term, which will select all the packages that have a user tag matching < tag>.
why, why-not
Explains the reason that a particular package should or cannot be installed on the system.
This command searches for packages that require or conflict with the given package. It displays a sequence of dependencies leading to the target package, along with a note indicating the installed state of each package in the dependency chain:
$ aptitude why kdepim
i   nautilus-data Recommends nautilus
i A nautilus      Recommends desktop-base (>= 0.2)
i A desktop-base  Suggests   gnome | kde | xfce4 | wmaker
p   kde           Depends    kdepim (>= 4:3.4.3)
The command why finds a dependency chain that installs the package named on the command line, as above. Note that the dependency that aptitude produced in this case is only a suggestion. This is because no package currently installed on this computer depends on or recommends the kdepim package; if a stronger dependency were available, aptitude would have displayed it.
In contrast, why-not finds a dependency chain leading to a conflict with the target package:
$ aptitude why-not textopo
i   ocaml-core          Depends   ocamlweb
i A ocamlweb            Depends   tetex-extra | texlive-latex-extra
i A texlive-latex-extra Conflicts textopo
If one or more < pattern>s are present (in addition to the mandatory last argument, which should be a valid < package> name), then aptitude will begin its search at these patterns. That is, the first package in the chain it prints to explain why < package> is or is not installed, will be a package matching the pattern in question. The patterns are considered to be package names unless they contain a tilde character (「 ~」) or a question mark (「 ?」), in which case they are treated as search patterns (see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual).
If no patterns are present, then aptitude will search for dependency chains beginning at manually installed packages. This effectively shows the packages that have caused or would cause a given package to be installed.
 
注記
 
 
aptitude why does not perform full dependency resolution; it only displays direct relationships between packages. For instance, if A requires B, C requires D, and B and C conflict, 「 aptitude why-not D」 will not produce the answer 「A depends on B, B conflicts with C, and D depends on C」.
By default aptitude outputs only the 「most installed, strongest, tightest, shortest」 dependency chain. That is, it looks for a chain that only contains packages which are installed or will be installed; it looks for the strongest possible dependencies under that restriction; it looks for chains that avoid ORed dependencies and Provides; and it looks for the shortest dependency chain meeting those criteria. These rules are progressively weakened until a match is found.
If the verbosity level is 1 or more, then all the explanations aptitude can find will be displayed, in inverse order of relevance. If the verbosity level is 2 or more, a truly excessive amount of debugging information will be printed to standard output.
This command returns 0 if successful, 1 if no explanation could be constructed, and -1 if an error occurred.
clean
以前ダウンロードした .deb ファイルをパッケージキャッシュディレクトリ (通常 /var/cache/apt/archives) から削除します。
autoclean
もうダウンロードできない、キャッシュされたパッケージを削除します。これによって、完全に削除しないかぎりキャッシュが時間とともに肥大化してしまい制御できなくなる、という事態を防げます。
changelog
指定されたソースパッケージまたはバイナリパッケージの各々について、Debian パッケージ更新履歴をダウンロードして表示します。
By default, the changelog for the version which would be installed with 「 aptitude install」 is downloaded. You can select a particular version of a package by appending =<version> to the package name; you can select the version from a particular archive or release by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for instance, /unstable or /sid).
download
指定されたパッケージの .deb ファイルをカレントディレクトリにダウンロードします。
This is a thin wrapper over apt(8).
extract-cache-subset
Copy the apt configuration directory ( /etc/apt) and a subset of the package database to the specified directory. If no packages are listed, the entire package database is copied; otherwise only the entries corresponding to the named packages are copied. Each package name may be a search pattern, and all the packages matching that pattern will be selected (see the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual). Any existing package database files in the output directory will be overwritten.
Dependencies in binary package stanzas will be rewritten to remove references to packages not in the selected set.
help
利用可能なコマンドとオプションを簡潔にまとめて表示します。

オプション

以上のアクションの振る舞いを変更するのに、以下のオプションが利用可能です。どのオプションも全てのコマンドに使えますが、オプションによっては特定のコマンドに適用できず無視されます。
--add-user-tag <tag>
For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade, forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: add the user tag < tag> to all packages that are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with the add-user-tag command.
--add-user-tag-to <tag>,<pattern>
For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade, forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: add the user tag < tag> to all packages that match < pattern> as if with the add-user-tag command. The pattern is a search pattern as described in the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual.
For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --add-user-tag-to "new-installs,?action(install)" will add the tag new-installs to all the packages installed by the safe-upgrade command.
--allow-new-upgrades
When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed, the action is safe-upgrade, or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the dependency resolver to install upgrades for packages regardless of the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.
--allow-new-installs
Allow the safe-upgrade command to install new packages; when the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed, the action is safe-upgrade, or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the dependency resolver to install new packages. This option takes effect regardless of the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.
--allow-untrusted
Install packages from untrusted sources without prompting. You should only use this if you know what you are doing, as it could easily compromise your system's security.
--disable-columns
This option causes aptitude search and aptitude versions to output their results without any special formatting. In particular: normally aptitude will add whitespace or truncate search results in an attempt to fit its results into vertical 「columns」. With this flag, each line will be formed by replacing any format escapes in the format string with the corresponding text; column widths will be ignored.
For instance, the first few lines of output from 「 aptitude search -F '%p %V' --disable-columns libedataserver」 might be:
disksearch 1.2.1-3
hp-search-mac 0.1.3
libbsearch-ruby 1.5-5
libbsearch-ruby1.8 1.5-5
libclass-dbi-abstractsearch-perl 0.07-2
libdbix-fulltextsearch-perl 0.73-10
As in the above example, --disable-columns is often useful in combination with a custom display format set using the command-line option -F.
This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Disable-Columns.
-D, --show-deps
For commands that will install or remove packages (install, full-upgrade, etc), show brief explanations of automatic installations and removals.
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Deps に相当します。
-d, --download-only
必要に応じてパッケージをパッケージキャッシュにダウンロードしますが、インストールや削除はしません。デフォルトでは、パッケージキャッシュは /var/cache/apt/archives に保存されます。
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Download-Only に相当します。
-F <フォーマット>, --display-format < フォーマット>
Specify the format which should be used to display output from the search and versions commands. For instance, passing 「 %p %v %V」 for < format> will display a package's name, followed by its currently installed version and its candidate version (see the section 「Customizing how packages are displayed」 in the aptitude reference manual for more information).
The command-line option --disable-columns is often useful in combination with -F.
For search, this corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Format; for versions, this corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Version-Display-Format.
-f
コマンドラインで要求されたアクションを無視することになってもなお、破損パッケージの依存関係を修正しようとします。
これは設定項目 Aptitude::CmdLine::Fix-Broken に相当します。
--full-resolver
When package dependency problems are encountered, use the default 「full」 resolver to solve them. Unlike the 「safe」 resolver activated by --safe-resolver, the full resolver will happily remove packages to fulfill dependencies. It can resolve more situations than the safe algorithm, but its solutions are more likely to be undesirable.
This option can be used to force the use of the full resolver even when Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is true.
--group-by <grouping-mode>
Control how the versions command groups its output. The following values are recognized:
archive to group packages by the archive they occur in (「 stable」, 「 unstable」, etc). If a package occurs in several archives, it will be displayed in each of them.
auto to group versions by their package unless there is exactly one argument and it is not a search pattern.
none to display all the versions in a single list without any grouping.
package to group versions by their package.
source-package to group versions by their source package.
source-version to group versions by their source package and source version.
This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Group-By.
-h, --help
簡潔なヘルプメッセージを表示します。help アクションと同一です。
--log-file=<file>
If < file> is a nonempty string, log messages will be written to it, except that if < file> is 「 -」, the messages will be written to standard output instead. If this option appears multiple times, the last occurrence is the one that will take effect.
This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has performed (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this configuration include internal program events, errors, and debugging messages. See the command-line option --log-level to get more control over what gets logged.
This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Logging::File.
--log-level=<level>, --log-level=<category>:<level>
--log-level=<level> causes aptitude to only log messages whose level is < level> or higher. For instance, setting the log level to error will cause only messages at the log levels error and fatal to be displayed; all others will be hidden. Valid log levels (in descending order) are off, fatal, error, warn, info, debug, and trace. The default log level is warn.
--log-level=<category>:<level> causes messages in < category> to only be logged if their level is < level> or higher.
--log-level may appear multiple times on the command line; the most specific setting is the one that takes effect, so if you pass --log-level=aptitude.resolver:fatal and --log-level=aptitude.resolver.hints.match:trace, then messages in aptitude.resolver.hints.parse will only be printed if their level is fatal, but all messages in aptitude.resolver.hints.match will be printed. If you set the level of the same category two or more times, the last setting is the one that will take effect.
This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has performed (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this configuration include internal program events, errors, and debugging messages. See the command-line option --log-file to change where log messages go.
This corresponds to the configuration group Aptitude::Logging::Levels.
--log-resolver
Set some standard log levels related to the resolver, to produce logging output suitable for processing with automated tools. This is equivalent to the command-line options --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search:trace --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search.tiers:info.
--no-new-installs
Prevent safe-upgrade from installing any new packages; when the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), forbid the dependency resolver from installing new packages. This option takes effect regardless of the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.
This mimics the historical behavior of apt-get upgrade.
--no-new-upgrades
When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), forbid the dependency resolver from installing upgrades for packages regardless of the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.
--no-show-resolver-actions
Do not display the actions performed by the 「safe」 resolver, overriding any configuration option or earlier --show-resolver-actions.
-O <順序>, --sort <順序>
Specify the order in which output from the search and versions commands should be displayed. For instance, passing 「 installsize」 for < order> will list packages in order according to their size when installed (see the section 「Customizing how packages are sorted」 in the aptitude reference manual for more information).
The default sort order is name,version.
-o <キー>=<>
設定ファイルオプションを直接設定します。例えば -o Aptitude::Log=/tmp/my-log を用いると、 aptitude のアクションを /tmp/my-log に記録できます。設定ファイルオプションについてのさらに詳しい情報は、 aptitude リファレンスマニュアルの「設定ファイルリファレンス」セクションを参照してください。
-P, --prompt
Always display a prompt before downloading, installing or removing packages, even when no actions other than those explicitly requested will be performed.
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Always-Prompt に相当します。
--purge-unused
If Aptitude::Delete-Unused is set to 「 true」 (its default), then in addition to removing each package that is no longer required by any installed package, aptitude will also purge them, removing their configuration files and perhaps other important data. For more information about which packages are considered to be 「unused」, see the section 「Managing Automatically Installed Packages」 in the aptitude reference manual. THIS OPTION CAN CAUSE DATA LOSS! DO NOT USE IT UNLESS YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING!
This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Purge-Unused.
-q[=<n>], --quiet[=<n>]
すべての進行状況を逐一表示させず、したがって出力を記録可能にします。プログラムの出力をより少なくするために、このオプションを何回も繰り返し与えてもかまいません。しかし apt-get とは異なり、 aptitude では、 -q を複数回与えた場合は -y を与えることはできません。
任意で =<n> をつけると、出力の少なさを直接設定できます (例えば、/etc/apt/apt.conf の設定を上書きするのに利用できます)。このときプログラムは、 -q をちょうど < n> 回与えたときのように振る舞います。
-R, --without-recommends
Do not treat recommendations as dependencies when installing new packages (this overrides settings in /etc/apt/apt.conf and ~/.aptitude/config). Packages previously installed due to recommendations will not be removed.
This corresponds to the pair of configuration options APT::Install-Recommends and APT::AutoRemove::RecommendsImportant.
-r, --with-recommends
新しいパッケージをインストールする際に、推奨を依存関係として扱います (これは、/etc/apt/apt.conf および ~/.aptitude/config の設定を上書きします)。
This corresponds to the configuration option APT::Install-Recommends
--remove-user-tag <tag>
For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: remove the user tag < tag> from all packages that are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with the add-user-tag command.
--remove-user-tag-from <tag>,<pattern>
For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: remove the user tag < tag> from all packages that match < pattern> as if with the remove-user-tag command. The pattern is a search pattern as described in the section 「Search Patterns」 in the aptitude reference manual.
For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --remove-user-tag-from "not-upgraded,?action(upgrade)" will remove the not-upgraded tag from all packages that the safe-upgrade command is able to upgrade.
-s, --simulate
コマンドラインモードで、通常なら実行されるアクションを、実際には実行せずに表示します。これには root 権限は要りません。ビジュアルインタフェースでは、使用者が root であるかないかに関わらず、常に読み取り専用モードでキャッシュを開きます。
これは設定オプション Aptitude::Simulate に相当します。
--safe-resolver
When package dependency problems are encountered, use a 「safe」 algorithm to solve them. This resolver attempts to preserve as many of your choices as possible; it will never remove a package or install a version of a package other than the package's default candidate version. It is the same algorithm used in safe-upgrade; indeed, aptitude --safe-resolver full-upgrade is equivalent to aptitude safe-upgrade. Because safe-upgrade always uses the safe resolver, it does not accept the --safe-resolver flag.
This option is equivalent to setting the configuration variable Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver to true.
--schedule-only
パッケージの状態を変化させるコマンドに対して、操作をその場では実行せずに、将来実行するよう設定します。引数を与えずに aptitude install を実行すると、設定されたアクションを実際に行うことができます。これは、ビジュアルモードで相当する選択を行ってからプログラムを正常に終了させるのと等価です。
例えば、 aptitude --schedule-only install evolution を実行すると、 evolution パッケージを後でインストールするよう設定できます。
--show-package-names <when>
Controls when the versions command shows package names. The following settings are allowed:
always: display package names every time that aptitude versions runs.
auto: display package names when aptitude versions runs if the output is not grouped by package, and either there is a pattern-matching argument or there is more than one argument.
never: never display package names in the output of aptitude versions.
This option corresponds to the configuration item Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Show-Package-Names.
--show-resolver-actions
Display the actions performed by the 「safe」 resolver and by safe-upgrade.
When executing the command safe-upgrade or when the option --safe-resolver is present, aptitude will display a summary of the actions performed by the resolver before printing the installation preview. This is equivalent to the configuration option Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::Show-Resolver-Actions.
--show-summary[=<MODE>]
Changes the behavior of 「 aptitude why」 to summarize each dependency chain that it outputs, rather than displaying it in long form. If this option is present and < MODE> is not 「 no-summary」, chains that contain Suggests dependencies will not be displayed: combine --show-summary with -v to see a summary of all the reasons for the target package to be installed.
< MODE> can be any one of the following:
1.no-summary: don't show a summary (the default behavior if --show-summary is not present).
2.first-package: display the first package in each chain. This is the default value of < MODE> if it is not present.
3.first-package-and-type: display the first package in each chain, along with the strength of the weakest dependency in the chain.
4.all-packages: briefly display each chain of dependencies leading to the target package.
5.all-packages-with-dep-versions: briefly display each chain of dependencies leading to the target package, including the target version of each dependency.
This option corresponds to the configuration item Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary; if --show-summary is present on the command-line, it will override Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary.
例12 Usage of --show-summary --show-summary used with -v to display all the reasons a package is installed:
$ aptitude -v --show-summary why foomatic-db
Packages requiring foomatic-db:
  cupsys-driver-gutenprint
  foomatic-db-engine
  foomatic-db-gutenprint
  foomatic-db-hpijs
  foomatic-filters-ppds
  foomatic-gui
  kde
  printconf
  wine
$ aptitude -v --show-summary=first-package-and-type why foomatic-db Packages requiring foomatic-db: [Depends] cupsys-driver-gutenprint [Depends] foomatic-db-engine [Depends] foomatic-db-gutenprint [Depends] foomatic-db-hpijs [Depends] foomatic-filters-ppds [Depends] foomatic-gui [Depends] kde [Depends] printconf [Depends] wine
$ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages why foomatic-db Packages requiring foomatic-db: cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db kde D: kdeadmin R: system-config-printer-kde D: system-config-printer R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db wine D: libwine-print D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db printconf D: foomatic-db
$ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages-with-dep-versions why foomatic-db Packages requiring foomatic-db: cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint (>= 5.0.2-4) D: cups (>= 1.3.0) R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301) foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301) kde D: kdeadmin (>= 4:3.5.5) R: system-config-printer-kde (>= 4:4.2.2-1) D: system-config-printer (>= 1.0.0) R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301) wine D: libwine-print (= 1.1.15-1) D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301) foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic (>= 0.7.9.2) D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301) printconf D: foomatic-db
--show-summary used to list a chain on one line:
$ aptitude --show-summary=all-packages why aptitude-gtk libglib2.0-data
Packages requiring libglib2.0-data:
  aptitude-gtk D: libglib2.0-0 R: libglib2.0-data
-t <リリース>, --target-release < リリース>
Set the release from which packages should be installed. For instance, 「 aptitude -t experimental ...」 will install packages from the experimental distribution unless you specify otherwise.
This will affect the default candidate version of packages according to the rules described in apt_preferences(5).
これは設定項目 APT::Default-Release に相当します。
-V, --show-versions
パッケージのどのバージョンがインストールされるか表示します。
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Versions に相当します。
-v, --verbose
いくつかのコマンド (例えば show) が付加的な情報を表示するようにします。さらに詳しい情報を得るために、このオプションを何回も繰り返し与えてもかまいません。
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose に相当します。
--version
aptitude のバージョンや、そのコンパイル方法に関する情報を表示します。
--visual-preview
コマンドラインからパッケージのインストールや削除を行うときに、通常のプロンプトを表示する代わりに、ビジュアルインタフェースを立ち上げてそのプレビュー画面を表示します。
-W, --show-why
In the preview displayed before packages are installed or removed, show which manually installed package requires each automatically installed package. For instance:
$ aptitude --show-why install mediawiki
...
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  libapache2-mod-php5{a} (for mediawiki)  mediawiki  php5{a} (for mediawiki)
  php5-cli{a} (for mediawiki)  php5-common{a} (for mediawiki)
  php5-mysql{a} (for mediawiki)
When combined with -v or a non-zero value for Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose, this displays the entire chain of dependencies that lead each package to be installed. For instance:
$ aptitude -v --show-why install libdb4.2-dev
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  libdb4.2{a} (libdb4.2-dev D: libdb4.2)  libdb4.2-dev
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  libdb4.4-dev{a} (libdb4.2-dev C: libdb-dev P<- libdb-dev)
This option will also describe why packages are being removed, as shown above. In this example, libdb4.2-dev conflicts with libdb-dev, which is provided by libdb-dev.
This argument corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Why and displays the same information that is computed by aptitude why and aptitude why-not.
-w <>, --width <>
Specify the display width which should be used for output from the search and versions commands (in the command line).
By default and when the output is seen directly in a terminal, the terminal width is used. When the output is redirected or piped, a very large "unlimited" line width is used, and this option is ignored.
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Width に相当します。
-y, --assume-yes
yes/no プロンプトが表示されたときにユーザが「yes」と入力したと仮定します。特に、パッケージをインストール・更新・削除するときに現れるプロンプトを隠します。必須パッケージの削除などといった「危険な」アクションに対するプロンプトはそのまま表示され続けます。このオプションは -P を上書きします。
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Assume-Yes に相当します。
-Z
インストール・更新・削除される各パッケージがどの程度のディスク領域を使用または解放するかを表示します。
これは設定オプション Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Size-Changes に相当します。
以下のオプションがプログラムのビジュアルモードに適用できますが、これらは主に内部で使用するためのものです。あなたがこれらを自分で使う必要は、通常はありません。
--autoclean-on-startup
Deletes old downloaded files when the program starts (equivalent to starting the program and immediately selecting Actions → Clean obsolete files). You cannot use this option and 「 --clean-on-startup」, 「 -i」, or 「 -u」 at the same time.
--clean-on-startup
Cleans the package cache when the program starts (equivalent to starting the program and immediately selecting Actions → Clean package cache). You cannot use this option and 「 --autoclean-on-startup」, 「 -i」, or 「 -u」 at the same time.
-i
Displays a download preview when the program starts (equivalent to starting the program and immediately pressing 「g」). You cannot use this option and 「 --autoclean-on-startup」, 「 --clean-on-startup」, or 「 -u」 at the same time.
-S <ファイル名>
標準の状態ファイルではなく < ファイル名> から拡張状態情報をロードします。
-u
Begins updating the package lists as soon as the program starts. You cannot use this option and 「 --autoclean-on-startup」, 「 --clean-on-startup」, or 「 -i」 at the same time.

環境変数

HOME
If $HOME/.aptitude exists, aptitude will store its configuration file in $HOME/.aptitude/config. Otherwise, it will look up the current user's home directory using getpwuid(2) and place its configuration file there.
PAGER
aptitude changelog」が呼び出されたときに、この環境変数が設定されていると、 aptitude は更新履歴を表示するのにそれを用います。設定されていない場合のデフォルトは more です。
TMP
TMPDIR が設定されていなく TMP が設定されている場合、 aptitudeTMP に一時ファイルを保存します。そうでない場合は /tmp に保存します。
TMPDIR
この環境変数で示される一時ディレクトリに aptitude は一時ファイルを保存します。 TMPDIR が設定されていない場合、 TMP が使用されます。 TMP も設定されていない場合、 aptitude は /tmp を使用します。

FILES

/var/lib/aptitude/pkgstates
The file in which stored package states and some package flags are stored.
/etc/apt/apt.conf, /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/*, ~/.aptitude/config
The configuration files for aptitude. ~/.aptitude/config overrides /etc/apt/apt.conf. See apt.conf(5) for documentation of the format and contents of these files.

SEE ALSO

apt-get(8), apt(8), aptitude-doc-<言語> パッケージの /usr/share/doc/aptitude/html/< 言語>/index.html

著者

Burrows Daniel[FAMILY Given] <dburrows@debian.org>
Main author of the document.
Fernandez Montecelo Manuel A.[FAMILY Given] <mafm@debian.org>
Main maintainer after Daniel Burrows, documentation about new features, corrections and formatting.

製作著作

Copyright 2004-2011 Daniel Burrows.
Copyright 2014-2016 Manuel A. Fernandez Montecelo
This manual page is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This manual page is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
18/04/2017 aptitude 0.8.7