openchrome - video driver for VIA Unichromes
is an Xorg driver for VIA chipsets that have an integrated
Unichrome graphics engine.
driver supports the following chipsets: CLE266,
KM400/KN400/KM400A/P4M800, CN400/PM800/PN800/PM880, K8M800,
CN700/VM800/P4M800Pro, CX700, P4M890, K8M890, P4M900/VN896/CN896, VX800, VX855
and VX900. The driver includes 2D acceleration and Xv video overlay
extensions. Flat panel, TV, and VGA outputs are supported, depending on the
3D direct rendering is available using experimental drivers from Mesa
(www.mesa3d.org). There is also an XvMC client library for hardware
acceleration of MPEG1/MPEG2 decoding (not available on the KM/N400) that uses
the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI). The XvMC client library implements
a non-standard "VLD" extension to the XvMC standard. The current
Direct Rendering Manager (DRM) kernel module is available at
The driver supports free modes for Unichrome Pros (K8M800/K8N800, PM800/PN800,
and CN400). For plain Unichromes (CLE266, KM400/KN400), it currently supports
only a limited number of dotclocks, so if you are using X modelines you must
make sure that the dotclock is one of those supported. Supported dotclocks on
plain Unichromes are currently (in MHz): 25.2, 25.312, 26.591, 31.5, 31.704,
32.663, 33.750, 35.5, 36.0, 39.822, 40.0, 41.164, 46.981, 49.5, 50.0, 56.3,
57.284, 64.995, 65.0, 65.028, 74.480, 75.0, 78.8, 81.613, 94.5, 108.0, 108.28,
122.0, 122.726, 135.0, 148.5, 155.8, 157.5, 161.793, 162.0, 175.5, 189.0,
202.5, 204.8, 218.3, 229.5. On top of this, bandwidth restrictions apply for
both Unichromes and Unichrome Pros.
Please refer to xorg.conf(5)
for general configuration details. This section
only covers configuration details specific to this driver.
The following driver options
- Option "AccelMethod"
- The driver supports "XAA" and "EXA" acceleration
methods. The default method is XAA, since EXA is still experimental.
Contrary to XAA, EXA implements acceleration for screen uploads and
downloads (if DRI is enabled) and for the Render/Composite extension.
- Option "ActiveDevice"
- Specifies the active device combination. Any string containing
"CRT", "LCD", "DFP", "TV" should
be possible. "CRT" represents anything that is connected to the
VGA port, "LCD" is for laptop panels (not TFT screens attached
to the VGA port), "DFP" is for screens connected to the DVI
port, "TV" is self-explanatory. The default is to use what is
detected. The driver is currently unable to use LCD and TV simultaneously,
and will favour the LCD. The DVI port is not properly probed and needs to
be enabled with this option.
- Option "AGPMem" "integer"
- Sets the amount of AGP memory that is allocated at X server startup. The
allocated memory will be "integer" kB. This AGP memory is used
for the AGP command buffer (if the option "EnableAGPDMA" is set
to "true"), for DRI textures, and for the EXA scratch area. The
driver will allocate at least one system page of AGP memory, or -- if the
AGP command buffer is used -- at least 2 MB plus one system page. If there
is no room for the EXA scratch area in AGP space, it will be allocated
from VRAM. If there is no room for DRI textures, they will be allocated
from the DRI part of VRAM (see the option "MaxDRIMem"). The
default amount of AGP is 32768 kB. Note that the AGP aperture set in the
BIOS must be able to accommodate the amount of AGP memory specified here.
Otherwise no AGP memory will be available. It is safe to set a very large
AGP aperture in the BIOS.
- Option "Center" "boolean"
- Enables image centering on DVI displays. The default is disabled.
- Option "DisableIRQ"
- Disables the vertical blank IRQ. This is a workaround for some mainboards
that have problems with IRQs coming from the Unichrome engine. With IRQs
disabled, DRI clients have no way to synchronize their drawing to Vblank.
(IRQ is disabled by default on the KM400 and K8M800 chipsets.)
- Option "DisableVQ" "boolean"
- Disables the use of the virtual command queue. The queue is enabled by
- Option "EnableAGPDMA"
- Enables the AGP DMA functionality in DRM. This requires that DRI is
enabled and will force 2D and 3D acceleration to use AGP DMA. The XvMC DRI
client will also make use of this on the CLE266 to consume much less CPU.
(This option is enabled by default, except on the K8M890 and P4M900.)
- Option "ExaNoComposite"
- If EXA is enabled (using the option "AccelMethod"), this option
enables acceleration of compositing. Since EXA, and in particular its
composite acceleration, is still experimental, this is a way to disable a
misbehaving composite acceleration.
- Option "ExaScratchSize"
- Sets the size of the EXA scratch area to "integer" kB. This area
is used by EXA as a last place to look for available space for pixmaps.
Too little space will slow compositing down. This option should be set to
the size of the largest pixmap used. If you have a screen width of over
1024 pixels and use 24 bpp, set this to 8192. Otherwise you can leave this
at the default 4096. The space will be allocated from AGP memory if
available, otherwise from VRAM.
- Option "LCDDualEdge"
- Enables the use of dual-edge mode to set the LCD. The default is
- Option "MaxDRIMem" "integer"
- Sets the maximum amount of VRAM memory allocated for DRI clients to
"integer" kB. Normally DRI clients get half the available VRAM
size, but in some cases it may make sense to limit this amount. For
example, if you are using a composite manager and you want to give as much
memory as possible to the EXA pixmap storage area.
- Option "MigrationHeuristic"
- Sets the heuristic for EXA pixmap migration. This is an EXA core option,
and starting from Xorg server version 1.3.0 this defaults to
"always". The openchrome driver performs best with
"greedy", so you should really add this option to your
configuration file. The third possibility is "smart".
- Option "NoAccel" "boolean"
- Disables the use of hardware acceleration. Acceleration is enabled by
- Option "NoAGPFor2D"
- Disables the use of AGP DMA for 2D acceleration, even when AGP DMA is
enabled. The default is enabled.
- Option "NoXVDMA" "boolean"
- If DRI is enabled, Xv normally uses PCI DMA to transfer video images from
system to frame-buffer memory. This is somewhat slower than direct copies
due to the limitations of the PCI bus, but on the other hand it decreases
CPU usage significantly, particularly on computers with fast processors.
Some video players are buggy and will display rendering artifacts when PCI
DMA is used. If you experience this, or don't want your PCI bus to be
stressed with Xv images, set this option to "true". This option
has no effect when DRI is not enabled.
- Option "PanelSize" "string"
- Specifies the size (width x height) of the LCD panel attached to the
system. The sizes 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, 1280x1024, and 1400x1050 are
- Option "RotationType"
- Enabled rotation by using RandR. The driver only support unaccelerated
RandR rotations "SWRandR". Hardware rotations
"HWRandR" is currently unimplemented.
- Option "Rotate" "string"
- Rotates the display either clockwise ("CW"), counterclockwise
("CCW") and upside-down ("UD"). Rotation is only
supported unaccelerated. Adding option "Rotate", enables RandR
rotation feature. The RandR allows clients to dynamically change X
- Option "ShadowFB" "boolean"
- Enables the use of a shadow frame buffer. This is required when rotating
the display, but otherwise defaults to disabled.
- Option "SWCursor" "boolean"
- Enables the use of a software cursor. The default is disabled: the
hardware cursor is used.
- Option "TVDeflicker"
- Specifies the deflicker setting for TV output. Valid values are
"0", "1", and "2". Here 0 means no
deflicker, 1 means 1:1:1 deflicker, and 2 means 1:2:1 deflicker.
- Option "TVDotCrawl"
- Enables dot-crawl suppression. The default is disabled.
- Option "TVOutput" "string"
- Specifies which TV output to use. The driver supports "S-Video",
"Composite", "SC", "RGB", and
"YCbCr" outputs. Note that on some EPIA boards the
composite-video port is shared with audio-out and is selected via a
- Option "TVPort" "string"
- Specifies TV port. The driver currently supports "DVP0",
"DVP1", "DFPHigh" and "DFPLow" ports.
- Option "TVType" "string"
- Specifies TV output format. The driver currently supports "NTSC"
and "PAL" timings only.
- Option "VBEModes" "boolean"
- Enables the use of VBE BIOS calls for setting the display mode. This
mimics the behaviour of the vesa driver but still provides acceleration
and other features. This option may be used if your hardware works with
the vesa driver but not with the openchrome driver. It may not work on
64-bit systems. Using "VBEModes" may speed up driver
acceleration significantly due to a more aggressive hardware setting,
particularly on systems with low memory bandwidth. Your refresh rate may
be limited to 60 Hz on some systems.
- Option "VBESaveRestore"
- Enables the use of VBE BIOS calls for saving and restoring the display
state when the X server is launched. This can be extremely slow on some
hardware, and the system may appear to have locked for 10 seconds or so.
The default is to use the driver builtin function. This option only works
if option "VBEModes" is enabled.
- Option "VideoRAM" "integer"
- Overrides the VideoRAM autodetection. This should never be needed.
Unichromes tend to be paired with several different TV encoders.
- VIA Technologies VT1621
- Still untested, as no combination with a Unichrome is known or available.
Supports the following normal modes: "640x480" and
"800x600". Use "640x480Over" and
"800x600Over" for vertical overscan. These modes are made
available by the driver; modelines provided in xorg.conf will be
- VIA Technologies VT1622, VT1622A, VT1623
- Supports the following modes: "640x480", "800x600",
"1024x768", "848x480", "720x480" (NTSC only)
and "720x576" (PAL only). Use "640x480Over",
"848x480Over", "720x480Over" (NTSC) and
"720x576Over" (PAL) for vertical overscan. The modes
"720x480Noscale" (NTSC) and "720x576Noscale" (PAL)
(available on VT1622 only) provide cleaner TV output (unscaled with only
minimal overscan). These modes are made available by the driver; modelines
provided in xorg.conf will be ignored.
, EXA(5), Xv(5)
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