init - Upstart process management daemon
is the parent of all processes on the system, it is executed by the
kernel and is responsible for starting all other processes; it is the parent
of all processes whose natural parents have died and it is responsible for
reaping those when they die.
Processes managed by init
are known as jobs and are defined by files in
directory. See init(5)
for more details on
is an event-based init daemon. This means that jobs will be
automatically started and stopped by changes that occur to the system state,
including as a result of jobs starting and stopping.
This is different to dependency-based init daemons which start a specified set
of goal jobs, and resolve the order in which they should be started and other
jobs required by iterating their dependencies.
For more information on starting and stopping jobs, as well as emitting events
that will automatically start and stop jobs, see the manual page for the
The primary event is the startup(7)
event, emitted when the daemon has
finished loading its configuration. Other useful events are the
events emitted as jobs change state.
for a summary of well-known events.
System V compatibility¶
The Upstart init(8)
daemon does not keep track of runlevels itself,
instead they are implemented entirely by its userspace tools. The event
emitted to signify a change of runlevel is the runlevel(7)
more information see its manual page.
Options are passed to init(8)
by placing them on the kernel command-line.
- --confdir directory
- Read job configuration files from a directory other than the default (
/etc/init for process ID 1).
When running as process ID 1, the last directory specified will be used.
In user session mode, multiple directories will be honoured and job
configuration files loaded from the directories in the order
- --default-console value
- Default value for jobs that do not specify a 'console' stanza. This
could be used for example to set the default to ' none' but still
honour jobs that specify explicitly ' console log'. See
init(5) for all possible values of console.
- Do not connect to a D-Bus bus.
- Stop jobs from inheriting the initial environment. Only meaningful when
running in user mode.
- --logdir directory
- Write job output log files to a directory other than
/var/log/upstart (system mode) or $XDG_CACHE_HOME/upstart
(user session mode).
- Disable logging of job output. Note that jobs specifying 'console
log' will be treated as if they had specified ' console
none'. See init(5) for further details.
- Disable chroot sessions.
- Suppress emission of the initial startup event. This option should only be
used for testing since it will stop the init(8) daemon from
starting any jobs automatically.
- Connect to the D-Bus session bus. This should only be used for
- --startup-event event
- Specify a different initial startup event from the standard
- Starts in user mode, as used for user sessions. Upstart will be run as an
unprivileged user, reading configuration files from configuration
locations as per roughly XDG Base Directory Specification. See
init(5) for further details.
- -q, --quiet
- Reduces output messages to errors only.
- -v, --verbose
- Outputs verbose messages about job state changes and event emissions to
the system console or log, useful for debugging boot.
- Outputs version information and exits.
is not normally executed by a user process, and expects to have a
process id of 1. If this is not the case, it will actually execute
and pass all arguments to that. See that manual page for
further details. However, if the --user
option is specified, it will
run as a Session Init
and read alternative configuration files and
manage the individual user session in a similar fashion.
Sending a Session Init a SIGTERM
signal is taken as a request to shutdown
due to an impending system shutdown. In this scenario, the Session Init will
emit the session-end
event and request all running jobs stop. It will
attempt to honour jobs kill timeout
values (see init(5)
further details). Note however that system policy will prevail: if jobs
request timeout values longer than the system policy allows for complete
system shutdown, it will not be possible to honour them before the Session
Init is killed by the system.
When run as a user process, the following variables may be used to find job
See User Session Mode
for further details.
Written by Scott James Remnant <email@example.com
Report bugs at <https://launchpad.net/upstart/+bugs
Copyright © 2009-2012 Canonical Ltd.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
control-alt-delete(7) init(5) initctl(8) runlevel(7)
startup(7) starting(7) started(7) stopping(7)
stopped(7) telinit(8) upstart-events(7)