mount - mount filesystem
int mount(const char *source, const char *target,
const char *filesystemtype, unsigned long mountflags,
const void *data);
() attaches the filesystem specified by source
often a device name, but can also be a directory name or a dummy) to the
directory specified by target
Appropriate privilege (Linux: the CAP_SYS_ADMIN
capability) is required
to mount filesystems.
Since Linux 2.4 a single filesystem can be visible at multiple mount points, and
multiple mounts can be stacked on the same mount point.
Values for the filesystemtype
argument supported by the kernel are listed
(e.g., "minix", "ext2",
"ext3", "jfs", "xfs", "reiserfs",
"msdos", "proc", "nfs", "iso9660").
Further types may become available when the appropriate modules are loaded.
argument may have the magic number 0xC0ED (
) in the top 16 bits (this was required in kernel versions
prior to 2.4, but is no longer required and ignored if specified), and various
mount flags in the low order 16 bits:
- MS_BIND (Linux 2.4 onward)
- Perform a bind mount, making a file or a directory subtree visible at
another point within a filesystem. Bind mounts may cross filesystem
boundaries and span chroot(2) jails. The filesystemtype and
data arguments are ignored. Up until Linux 2.6.26,
mountflags was also ignored (the bind mount has the same mount
options as the underlying mount point).
- MS_DIRSYNC (since Linux 2.5.19)
- Make directory changes on this filesystem synchronous. (This property can
be obtained for individual directories or subtrees using
- Permit mandatory locking on files in this filesystem. (Mandatory locking
must still be enabled on a per-file basis, as described in
- Move a subtree. source specifies an existing mount point and
target specifies the new location. The move is atomic: at no point
is the subtree unmounted. The filesystemtype, mountflags,
and data arguments are ignored.
- Do not update access times for (all types of) files on this
- Do not allow access to devices (special files) on this filesystem.
- Do not update access times for directories on this filesystem. This flag
provides a subset of the functionality provided by MS_NOATIME; that
is, MS_NOATIME implies MS_NODIRATIME.
- Do not allow programs to be executed from this filesystem.
- Do not honor set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits when executing programs
from this filesystem.
- Mount filesystem read-only.
- MS_RELATIME (since Linux 2.6.20)
- When a file on this filesystem is accessed, update the file's last access
time (atime) only if the current value of atime is less than or equal to
the file's last modification time (mtime) or last status change time
(ctime). This option is useful for programs, such as mutt(1), that
need to know when a file has been read since it was last modified. Since
Linux 2.6.30, the kernel defaults to the behavior provided by this flag
(unless MS_NOATIME was specified), and the MS_STRICTATIME
flag is required to obtain traditional semantics. In addition, since Linux
2.6.30, the file's last access time is always updated if it is more than 1
- Remount an existing mount. This allows you to change the mountflags
and data of an existing mount without having to unmount and remount
the filesystem. target should be the same value specified in the
initial mount() call; source and filesystemtype are
ignored. The mountflags and data arguments should match the
values used in the original mount() call, except for those
parameters that are being deliberately changed.
The following mountflags can be changed: MS_RDONLY,
MS_SYNCHRONOUS, MS_MANDLOCK; before kernel 2.6.16, the
following could also be changed: MS_NOATIME and
MS_NODIRATIME; and, additionally, before kernel 2.4.10, the
following could also be changed: MS_NOSUID, MS_NODEV,
- MS_SILENT (since Linux 2.6.17)
- Suppress the display of certain (printk()) warning messages in the
kernel log. This flag supersedes the misnamed and obsolete
MS_VERBOSE flag (available since Linux 2.4.12), which has the same
- MS_STRICTATIME (since Linux 2.6.30)
- Always update the last access time (atime) when files on this filesystem
are accessed. (This was the default behavior before Linux 2.6.30.)
Specifying this flag overrides the effect of setting the MS_NOATIME
and MS_RELATIME flags.
- Make writes on this filesystem synchronous (as though the O_SYNC
flag to open(2) was specified for all file opens to this
From Linux 2.4 onward, the MS_NODEV
flags are settable on a per-mount-point basis. From kernel
2.6.16 onward, MS_NOATIME
are also settable on
a per-mount-point basis. The MS_RELATIME
flag is also settable on a
argument is interpreted by the different filesystems. Typically
it is a string of comma-separated options understood by this filesystem. See
for details of the options available for each filesystem type.
On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno
The error values given below result from filesystem type independent errors.
Each filesystem type may have its own special errors and its own special
behavior. See the Linux kernel source code for details.
- A component of a path was not searchable. (See also
path_resolution(7).) Or, mounting a read-only filesystem was
attempted without giving the MS_RDONLY flag. Or, the block device
source is located on a filesystem mounted with the MS_NODEV
- source is already mounted. Or, it cannot be remounted read-only,
because it still holds files open for writing. Or, it cannot be mounted on
target because target is still busy (it is the working
directory of some thread, the mount point of another device, has open
- One of the pointer arguments points outside the user address space.
- source had an invalid superblock. Or, a remount (MS_REMOUNT)
was attempted, but source was not already mounted on target.
Or, a move (MS_MOVE) was attempted, but source was not a
mount point, or was '/'.
- Too many links encountered during pathname resolution. Or, a move was
attempted, while target is a descendant of source.
- (In case no block device is required:) Table of dummy devices is
- A pathname was longer than MAXPATHLEN.
- filesystemtype not configured in the kernel.
- A pathname was empty or had a nonexistent component.
- The kernel could not allocate a free page to copy filenames or data
- source is not a block device (and a device was required).
- target, or a prefix of source, is not a directory.
- The major number of the block device source is out of range.
- The caller does not have the required privileges.
The definitions of MS_DIRSYNC
, and MS_STRICTATIME
were added to glibc headers in
This function is Linux-specific and should not be used in programs intended to
The original MS_SYNC
flag was renamed MS_SYNCHRONOUS
when a different MS_SYNC
was added to <mman.h>
Before Linux 2.4 an attempt to execute a set-user-ID or set-group-ID program on
a filesystem mounted with MS_NOSUID
would fail with EPERM
Linux 2.4 the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits are just silently ignored in
Starting with kernel 2.4.19, Linux provides per-process mount namespaces. A
mount namespace is the set of filesystem mounts that are visible to a process.
Mount-point namespaces can be (and usually are) shared between multiple
processes, and changes to the namespace (i.e., mounts and unmounts) by one
process are visible to all other processes sharing the same namespace. (The
pre-2.4.19 Linux situation can be considered as one in which a single
namespace was shared by every process on the system.)
A child process created by fork(2)
shares its parent's mount namespace;
the mount namespace is preserved across an execve(2)
A process can obtain a private mount namespace if: it was created using the
flag, in which case its new namespace is
initialized to be a copy
of the namespace of the process that called
; or it calls unshare(2)
with the CLONE_NEWNS
flag, which causes the caller's mount namespace to obtain a private copy of
the namespace that it was previously sharing with other processes, so that
future mounts and unmounts by the caller are invisible to other processes
(except child processes that the caller subsequently creates) and vice versa.
The Linux-specific /proc/PID/mounts
file exposes the list of mount points
in the mount namespace of the process with the specified ID; see
This page is part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages
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