dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources
is a program that automates the process of building a
Debian package. It consists of the following steps:
- It prepares the build environment by setting various environment variables
(see ENVIRONMENT), runs the init hook, and calls
dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target has
- It checks that the build-dependencies and build-conflicts are satisfied
(unless -d is specified).
- If a specific target has been selected with the -T or
--target option, it calls that target and stops here. Otherwise it
runs the preclean hook and calls fakeroot debian/rules clean
to clean the build-tree (unless -nc is specified).
- It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source -b to generate
the source package (unless a binary-only build has been requested with
-b, -B or -A).
- It runs the build hook and calls debian/rules
build-target, then runs the binary hook followed by
fakeroot debian/rules binary-target (unless a source-only
build has been requested with -S). Note that build-target
and binary-target are either build and binary
(default case, or if -b is specified), or build-arch and
binary-arch (if -B or -G are specified), or
build-indep and binary-indep (if -A or -g are
- It runs the changes hook and calls dpkg-genchanges to
generate a .changes file. Many dpkg-buildpackage options are
forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.
- It runs the postclean hook and if -tc is specified, it will
call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.
- It calls dpkg-source --after-build.
- It runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the
.changes file (if a command is specified in
DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or with --check-command).
- It runs the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg to sign
the .dsc file (if any, unless -us is specified or on
UNRELEASED builds), and the .changes file (unless -uc is
specified or on UNRELEASED builds).
- It runs the done hook.
- Specifies a build limited to source and architecture independent packages.
Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
- Specifies a build limited to source and architecture specific packages.
Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
- Specifies a binary-only build, no source files are to be built and/or
distributed. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
- Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture dependent packages.
Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
- Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture independent
packages. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
- Specifies a source-only build, no binary packages need to be made. Passed
- Specifies a normal full build, binary and source packages will be built.
This is the same as the default case when no build option is
- --target target -Ttarget Calls
debian/rules target after having setup the build environment
and stops the package build process here. If --as-root is also
given, then the command is executed as root (see -r). Note that
official targets that are required to be run as root by the Debian policy
do not need this option.
- Only meaningful together with --target. Requires that the target be
run with root rights.
- -sa -sd -vversion
-emaintainer-address Passed unchanged to
dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.
- -a, --host-arch architecture
- Specify the Debian architecture we build for. The architecture of the
machine we build on is determined automatically, and is also the default
for the host machine.
- -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
- Specify the GNU system type we build for. It can be used in place of
--host-arch or as a complement to override the default GNU system type of
the host Debian architecture.
- --target-arch architecture
- Specify the Debian architecture the binaries built will build for. The
default value is the host machine.
- --target-type gnu-system-type
- Specify the GNU system type the binaries built will build for. It can be
used in place of --target-arch or as a complement to override the default
GNU system type of the target Debian architecture.
- Specify the profile(s) we build, as a comma-separated list. The default
behavior is to build for no specific profile. Also sets them (as a space
separated list) as the DEB_BUILD_PROFILES environment variable
which allows, for example, debian/rules files to use this
information for conditional builds.
- Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of jobs matching
the number of online processors if auto is specified, or unlimited
number if jobs is not specified, equivalent to the make(1)
option of the same name. Will add itself to the MAKEFLAGS
environment variable, which should cause all subsequent make invocations
to inherit the option. Also adds parallel=jobs or
parallel= to the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable
which allows debian/rules files to use this information for their own
purposes. The parallel=jobs or parallel= option in
DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable will override the -j
value if this option is given. Note that the auto value will get
replaced by the actual number of currently active processors, and as such
will not get propagated to any child process. If the number of online
processors cannot be inferred then the code will fallback to using an
- Check build dependencies and conflicts; abort if unsatisfied. This is the
- Do not check build dependencies and conflicts.
- Do not clean the source tree (implies -b if nothing else has been
selected among -F, -g, -G, -B, -A or
- Clean the source tree (using gain-root-command debian/rules
clean) after the package has been built.
- When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute part of the build process
as root, it prefixes the command it executes with gain-root-command
if one has been specified. Otherwise, if none has been specified,
fakeroot will be used by default, if the command is present.
gain-root-command should start with the name of a program on the
PATH and will get as arguments the name of the real command to run
and the arguments it should take. gain-root-command can include
parameters (they must be space-separated) but no shell metacharacters.
gain-root-command might typically be fakeroot, sudo,
super or really. su is not suitable, since it can
only invoke the user's shell with -c instead of passing arguments
individually to the command to be run.
- Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules as
a command with several standard parameters. With this option it's possible
to use another program invocation to build the package (it can include
space separated parameters). Alternatively it can be used to execute the
standard rules file with another make program (for example by using
/usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules as rules-file).
- Command used to check the .changes file itself and any artifact
built referenced in the file. The command should take the .changes
pathname as an argument. This command will usually be lintian.
- Pass option opt to the check-command specified with
DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or --check-command. Can be used multiple
- Set the specified shell code hook-command as the hook
hook-name, which will run at the times specified in the run steps.
The hooks will always be executed even if the following action is not
performed (except for the binary hook).
Note: Hooks can affect the build process, and cause build failures if their
commands fail, so watch out for unintended consequences.
The current hook-name supported are:
init preclean source build binary changes postclean check sign done
The hook-command supports the following substitution format string,
which will get applied to it before execution:
- A single % character.
- A boolean value (0 or 1), representing whether the following action is
- The source package name.
- The source package version.
- The source package version (without the epoch).
- The upstream version.
- When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG to sign a source
control ( .dsc) file or a .changes file it will run
sign-command (searching the PATH if necessary) instead of
gpg2 or gpg. sign-command will get all the arguments
that gpg2 or gpg would have gotten. sign-command
should not contain spaces or any other shell metacharacters.
- Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages.
- Do not sign the source package.
- Do not sign the .changes file.
- Force the signing of the resulting files (since dpkg 1.17.0), regardless
of -us or -uc or other internal heuristics.
- -I[pattern] -s[nsAkurKUR] -z, -Z
Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.
- Pass option opt to dpkg-source. Can be used multiple
- Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges. Can be used multiple
- --admindir dir Change the location of the dpkg
database. The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.
- -?, --help
- Show the usage message and exit.
- Show the version and exit.
- If set, it will be used as the command to check the .changes file.
Overridden by the --check-command option.
- If set, it will be used to sign the .changes and .dsc files.
Overridden by the -k option.
- If set, and containing nocheck the DEB_CHECK_COMMAND
variable will be ignored.
- If set, it will be used as the active build profile(s) for the package
being built. It is a space separated list of profile names. Overridden by
the -P option.
Reliance on exported environment flags¶
Even if dpkg-buildpackage
exports some variables, debian/rules
should not rely on their presence and should instead use the respective
interface to retrieve the needed values.
Variables set by dpkg-architecture¶
is called with the -a
forwarded. Any variable that is output by its -s
option is integrated
in the build environment.
Compiler flags are no longer exported¶
Between dpkg 1.14.17 and 1.16.1, dpkg-buildpackage
flags ( CFLAGS
) with values as returned by dpkg-buildflags
. This is no
longer the case.
Default build targets¶
is using the build-arch
targets since dpkg 1.16.2. Those targets are thus mandatory. But to avoid
breakages of existing packages, and ease the transition, it will fallback to
using the build
target if make -f debian/rules -qn
returns 2 as exit code.
It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters and initial
arguments for gain-root-command