tail - deliver the last part of a file
] ] [ file
] [ -n nlines
] [ -c nbytes
] [ file
copies the named file to the standard output beginning at a
designated place. If no file is named, the standard input is copied.
Copying begins at position +number
measured from the beginning, or
from the end of the input. Number
is counted in
lines, 1K blocks or bytes, according to the appended flag or Default is
The further flag causes tail to print lines from the end of the file in reverse
order; (follow) causes tail
, after printing to the end, to keep watch
and print further data as it appears.
The second syntax is that promulgated by POSIX, where the numbers
than the options are signed.
- tail file
- Print the last 10 lines of a file.
- tail +0f file
- Print a file, and continue to watch data accumulate as it grows.
- sed 10q file
- Print the first 10 lines of a file.
Tails relative to the end of the file are treasured up in a buffer, and thus are
limited in length.
According to custom, option +number
counts lines from 1, and
counts blocks and bytes from 0.
is ignorant of UTF.