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RTL_433(1) rtl_433 Commands RTL_433(1)

NAME

rtl_433 - Generic RF data receiver and decoder for ISM band devices using RTL-SDR and SoapySDR.

DESCRIPTION

This manual page documents briefly the rtl_433 command.

rtl_433 is a generic data receiver, mainly for the 433.92 MHz, 868 MHz (SRD), 315 MHz, and 915 MHz ISM bands. It works with RTL-SDR and/or SoapySDR. Actively tested and supported are Realtek RTL2832 based DVB dongles (using RTL-SDR) and LimeSDR (LimeSDR USB and LimeSDR mini engineering samples kindly provided by MyriadRf), PlutoSDR, HackRF One (using SoapySDR drivers), as well as SoapyRemote.

SYNOPSIS

rtl_433 [OPTION]... FILE...

OPTIONS

A summary of options is included below. Detailed information on some options follows.

General options

[ -V ]
Output the version string and exit
[ -v ]
Increase verbosity (can be used multiple times). -v : verbose, -vv : verbose decoders, -vvv : debug decoders, -vvvv : trace decoding).
[ -c <path> ]
Read config options from a file

Tuner options

[ -d <RTL-SDR USB device index> | :<RTL-SDR USB device serial> | <SoapySDR device query> | rtl_tcp | help ]
[-g <gain> | help] (default: auto)
[ -t <settings> ]
apply a list of keyword=value settings for SoapySDR devices e.g. -t "antenna=A,bandwidth=4.5M,rfnotch_ctrl=false"
[ -f <frequency> ]
Receive frequency(s) (default: 433920000 Hz)
[ -H <seconds> ]
Hop interval for polling of multiple frequencies (default: 600 seconds)
[ -p <ppm_error ]
Correct rtl-sdr tuner frequency offset error (default: 0)
[ -s <sample rate> ]
Set sample rate (default: 250000 Hz)

Demodulator options

[ -R <device> | help ]
Enable only the specified device decoding protocol (can be used multiple times) Specify a negative number to disable a device decoding protocol (can be used multiple times)
[ -G ]
Enable blacklisted device decoding protocols, for testing only.
[ -X <spec> | help ]
Add a general purpose decoder (prepend -R 0 to disable all decoders)
[ -Y level=<dB level> ]
Manual detection level used to determine pulses (-1.0 to -30.0) (0=auto)
[ -n <value> ]
Specify number of samples to take (each sample is 2 bytes: 1 each of I & Q)
[ -Y auto | classic | minmax ]
FSK pulse detector mode.

Analyze/Debug options

[ -a ]
Analyze mode. Print a textual description of the signal.
[ -A ]
Pulse Analyzer. Enable pulse analysis and decode attempt. Disable all decoders with -R 0 if you want analyzer output only.
[ -y <code> ]
Verify decoding of demodulated test data (e.g. "{25}fb2dd58") with enabled devices

File I/O options

[ -S none | all | unknown | known ]
Signal auto save. Creates one file per signal. Note: Saves raw I/Q samples (uint8 pcm, 2 channel). Preferred mode for generating test files.
[ -r <filename> | help ]
Read data from input file instead of a receiver
[ -w <filename> | help ]
Save data stream to output file (a '-' dumps samples to stdout)
[ -W <filename> | help ]
Save data stream to output file, overwrite existing file

Data output options

[ -F kv | json | csv | mqtt | influx | syslog | null | help ]
Produce decoded output in given format. Append output to file with :<filename> (e.g. -F csv:log.csv), defaults to stdout. Specify host/port for syslog with e.g. -F syslog:127.0.0.1:1514
[ -M time[:<options>] | protocol | level | stats | bits | help ]
Add various meta data to each output.
[ -K FILE | PATH | <tag> | <key>=<tag> ]
Add an expanded token or fixed tag to every output line.
[ -C native | si | customary ]
Convert units in decoded output.
[ -T <seconds> ]
Specify number of seconds to run, also 12:34 or 1h23m45s
[ -E hop | quit ]
Hop/Quit after outputting successful event(s)
[ -h ]
Output this usage help and exit Use -d, -g, -R, -X, -F, -M, -r, -w, or -W without argument for more help

Input device selection

RTL-SDR device driver is available.
[ -d <RTL-SDR USB device index> ]
(default: 0)
[ -d :<RTL-SDR USB device serial (can be set with rtl_eeprom -s)> ]
To set gain for RTL-SDR use -g <gain> to set an overall gain in dB.
SoapySDR device driver is available.
[ -d "" ]
Open default SoapySDR device
[ -d driver=rtlsdr ]
Open e.g. specific SoapySDR device
To set gain for SoapySDR use -g ELEM=val,ELEM=val,... e.g. -g LNA=20,TIA=8,PGA=2 (for LimeSDR).
[ -d rtl_tcp[:[//]host[:port] ]
(default: localhost:1234)
Specify host/port to connect to with e.g. -d rtl_tcp:127.0.0.1:1234

Gain option

[ -g <gain> ]
(default: auto)
For RTL-SDR: gain in dB ("0" is auto).
For SoapySDR: gain in dB for automatic distribution ("" is auto), or string of gain elements.
E.g. "LNA=20,TIA=8,PGA=2" for LimeSDR.

Flex decoder spec

Use -X <spec> to add a flexible general purpose decoder.

<spec> is "key=value[,key=value...]" Common keys are:

name=<name> (or: n=<name>)
modulation=<modulation> (or: m=<modulation>)
short=<short> (or: s=<short>)
long=<long> (or: l=<long>)
sync=<sync> (or: y=<sync>)
reset=<reset> (or: r=<reset>)
gap=<gap> (or: g=<gap>)
tolerance=<tolerance> (or: t=<tolerance>)
where: <name> can be any descriptive name tag you need in the output <modulation> is one of:
OOK_MC_ZEROBIT : Manchester Code with fixed leading zero bit
OOK_PCM : Pulse Code Modulation (RZ or NRZ)
OOK_PPM : Pulse Position Modulation
OOK_PWM : Pulse Width Modulation
OOK_DMC : Differential Manchester Code
OOK_PIWM_RAW : Raw Pulse Interval and Width Modulation
OOK_PIWM_DC : Differential Pulse Interval and Width Modulation
OOK_MC_OSV1 : Manchester Code for OSv1 devices
FSK_PCM : FSK Pulse Code Modulation
FSK_PWM : FSK Pulse Width Modulation
FSK_MC_ZEROBIT : Manchester Code with fixed leading zero bit
<short>, <long>, <sync> are nominal modulation timings in us, <reset>, <gap>, <tolerance> are maximum modulation timings in us: PCM short: Nominal width of pulse [us] long: Nominal width of bit period [us] PPM short: Nominal width of '0' gap [us] long: Nominal width of '1' gap [us] PWM short: Nominal width of '1' pulse [us] long: Nominal width of '0' pulse [us] sync: Nominal width of sync pulse [us] (optional) common gap: Maximum gap size before new row of bits [us] reset: Maximum gap size before End Of Message [us] tolerance: Maximum pulse deviation [us] (optional). Available options are:
bits=<n> : only match if at least one row has <n> bits
rows=<n> : only match if there are <n> rows
repeats=<n> : only match if some row is repeated <n> times
use opt>=n to match at least <n> and opt<=n to match at most <n>
invert : invert all bits
reflect : reflect each byte (MSB first to MSB last)
match=<bits> : only match if the <bits> are found
preamble=<bits> : match and align at the <bits> preamble
<bits> is a row spec of {<bit count>}<bits as hex number>
unique : suppress duplicate row output

countonly : suppress detailed row output

E.g. -X "n=doorbell,m=OOK_PWM,s=400,l=800,r=7000,g=1000,match={24}0xa9878c,repeats>=3"

Output format option

[ -F kv|json|csv|mqtt|influx|syslog|null ]
Produce decoded output in given format.
Without this option the default is KV output. Use "-F null" to remove the default.
Append output to file with :<filename> (e.g. -F csv:log.csv), defaults to stdout.
Specify MQTT server with e.g. -F mqtt://localhost:1883
Add MQTT options with e.g. -F "mqtt://host:1883,opt=arg"
MQTT options are: user=foo, pass=bar, retain[=0|1], <format>[=topic]
Supported MQTT formats: (default is all)
events: posts JSON event data
states: posts JSON state data
devices: posts device and sensor info in nested topics
The topic string will expand keys like [/model]
E.g. -F "mqtt://localhost:1883,user=USERNAME,pass=PASSWORD,retain=0,devices=rtl_433[/id]"
With MQTT each rtl_433 instance needs a distinct driver selection. The MQTT Client-ID is computed from the driver string.
If you use multiple RTL-SDR, perhaps set a serial and select by that (helps not to get the wrong antenna).
Specify InfluxDB 2.0 server with e.g. -F "influx://localhost:9999/api/v2/write?org=<org>&bucket=<bucket>,token=<authtoken>"
Specify InfluxDB 1.x server with e.g. -F "influx://localhost:8086/write?db=<db>&p=<password>&u=<user>"
Additional parameter -M time:unix:usec:utc for correct timestamps in InfluxDB recommended
Specify host/port for syslog with e.g. -F syslog:127.0.0.1:1514

Meta information option

[ -M time[:<options>]|protocol|level|stats|bits|oldmodel ]
Add various metadata to every output line.
Use "time" to add current date and time meta data (preset for live inputs).
Use "time:rel" to add sample position meta data (preset for read-file and stdin).
Use "time:unix" to show the seconds since unix epoch as time meta data.
Use "time:iso" to show the time with ISO-8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD"T"hh:mm:ss).
Use "time:off" to remove time meta data.
Use "time:usec" to add microseconds to date time meta data.
Use "time:tz" to output time with timezone offset.
Use "time:utc" to output time in UTC.
(this may also be accomplished by invocation with TZ environment variable set).
"usec" and "utc" can be combined with other options, eg. "time:unix:utc:usec".
Use "protocol" / "noprotocol" to output the decoder protocol number meta data.
Use "level" to add Modulation, Frequency, RSSI, SNR, and Noise meta data.
Use "stats[:[<level>][:<interval>]]" to report statistics (default: 600 seconds).
level 0: no report, 1: report successful devices, 2: report active devices, 3: report all
Use "bits" to add bit representation to code outputs (for debug).
Note: You can use "oldmodel" to get the old model keys. This will be removed shortly.

Read file option

[ -r <filename> ]
Read data from input file instead of a receiver
Parameters are detected from the full path, file name, and extension.

A center frequency is detected as (fractional) number suffixed with 'M',
'Hz', 'kHz', 'MHz', or 'GHz'.

A sample rate is detected as (fractional) number suffixed with 'k',
'sps', 'ksps', 'Msps', or 'Gsps'.

File content and format are detected as parameters, possible options are:
'cu8', 'cs16', 'cf32' ('IQ' implied), and 'am.s16'.

Parameters must be separated by non-alphanumeric chars and are case-insensitive.
Overrides can be prefixed, separated by colon (':')

E.g. default detection by extension: path/filename.am.s16
forced overrides: am:s16:path/filename.ext

Reading from pipes also support format options.
E.g reading complex 32-bit float: CU32:-

Write file option

[ -w <filename> ]
Save data stream to output file (a '-' dumps samples to stdout)
[ -W <filename> ]
Save data stream to output file, overwrite existing file
Parameters are detected from the full path, file name, and extension.

File content and format are detected as parameters, possible options are:
'cu8', 'cs8', 'cs16', 'cf32' ('IQ' implied),
'am.s16', 'am.f32', 'fm.s16', 'fm.f32',
'i.f32', 'q.f32', 'logic.u8', 'ook', and 'vcd'.

Parameters must be separated by non-alphanumeric chars and are case-insensitive.
Overrides can be prefixed, separated by colon (':')

E.g. default detection by extension: path/filename.am.s16
forced overrides: am:s16:path/filename.ext

RESOURCES

Project web site: <https://github.com/merbanan/rtl_433>

COPYING

Copyright © 2012-2019 Benjamin Larsson, Christian W. Zuckschwerdt, and many contributors.
Free use of this software is granted under the terms of the GPL-2+ License.
2019-08-21 rtl_433