## table of contents

v.surf.bspline(1grass) | GRASS GIS User's Manual | v.surf.bspline(1grass) |

# NAME¶

**v.surf.bspline** - Performs bicubic or bilinear spline
interpolation with Tykhonov regularization.

# KEYWORDS¶

vector, surface, interpolation, LIDAR

# SYNOPSIS¶

**v.surf.bspline**

**v.surf.bspline --help**

**v.surf.bspline** [-**ce**] **input**=*name*
[**layer**=*string*] [**column**=*name*]
[**sparse_input**=*name*] [**output**=*name*]
[**raster_output**=*name*] [**mask**=*name*]
[**ew_step**=*float*] [**ns_step**=*float*]
[**method**=*string*] [**lambda_i**=*float*]
[**solver**=*name*] [**maxit**=*integer*]
[**error**=*float*] [**memory**=*memory in MB*]
[--**overwrite**] [--**help**] [--**verbose**] [--**quiet**]
[--**ui**]

## Flags:¶

**-c**-

Find the best Tykhonov regularizing parameter using a "leave-one-out" cross validation method **-e**-

Estimate point density and distance

Estimate point density and distance in map units for the input vector points within the current region extents and quit **--overwrite**-

Allow output files to overwrite existing files **--help**-

Print usage summary **--verbose**-

Verbose module output **--quiet**-

Quiet module output **--ui**-

Force launching GUI dialog

## Parameters:¶

**input**=*name***[required]**-

Name of input vector point map

Or data source for direct OGR access **layer**=*string*-

Layer number or name

Vector features can have category values in different layers. This number determines which layer to use. When used with direct OGR access this is the layer name.

Default:*1* **column**=*name*-

Name of the attribute column with values to be used for approximation

If not given and input is 3D vector map then z-coordinates are used. **sparse_input**=*name*-

Name of input vector map with sparse points

Or data source for direct OGR access **output**=*name*-

Name for output vector map **raster_output**=*name*-

Name for output raster map **mask**=*name*-

Raster map to use for masking (applies to raster output only)

Only cells that are not NULL and not zero are interpolated **ew_step**=*float*-

Length of each spline step in the east-west direction

Default: 4 * east-west resolution **ns_step**=*float*-

Length of each spline step in the north-south direction

Default: 4 * north-south resolution **method**=*string*-

Spline interpolation algorithm

Options:*bilinear, bicubic*

Default:*bilinear*

**bilinear**: Bilinear interpolation

**bicubic**: Bicubic interpolation **lambda_i**=*float*-

Tykhonov regularization parameter (affects smoothing)

Default:*0.01* **solver**=*name*-

The type of solver which should solve the symmetric linear equation system

Options:*cholesky, cg*

Default:*cholesky* **maxit**=*integer*-

Maximum number of iteration used to solve the linear equation system

Default:*10000* **error**=*float*-

Error break criteria for iterative solver

Default:*0.000001* **memory**=*memory in MB*-

Maximum memory to be used (in MB)

Cache size for raster rows

Default:*300*

# DESCRIPTION¶

*v.surf.bspline* performs a bilinear/bicubic spline
interpolation with Tykhonov regularization. The **input** is a 2D or 3D
vector *points* map. Values to interpolate can be the z values of 3D
points or the values in a user-specified attribute column in a 2D or 3D
vector map. Output can be a raster (**raster_output**) or vector
(**output**) map. Optionally, a "sparse point" vector map can
be input which indicates the location of **output** vector points.

# NOTES¶

From a theoretical perspective, the interpolating procedure takes
place in two parts: the first is an estimate of the linear coefficients of a
spline function is derived from the observation points using a least squares
regression; the second is the computation of the interpolated surface (or
interpolated vector points). As used here, the splines are 2D piece-wise
non-zero polynomial functions calculated within a limited, 2D area. The
length (in mapping units) of each spline step is defined by **ew_step**
for the east-west direction and **ns_step** for the north-south
direction. For optimal performance, the length of spline step should be no
less than the distance between observation points. Each vector point
observation is modeled as a linear function of the non-zero splines in the
area around the observation. The least squares regression predicts the the
coefficients of these linear functions. Regularization, avoids the need to
have one observation and one coefficient for each spline (in order to avoid
instability).

With regularly distributed data points, a spline step corresponding to the maximum distance between two points in both the east and north directions is sufficient. But often data points are not regularly distributed and require statistial regularization or estimation. In such cases, v.surf.bspline will attempt to minimize the gradient of bilinear splines or the curvature of bicubic splines in areas lacking point observations. As a general rule, spline step length should be greater than the mean distance between observation points (twice the distance between points is a good starting point). Separate east-west and north-south spline step length arguments allows the user to account for some degree of anisotropy in the distribution of observation points. Short spline step lengths - especially spline step lengths that are less than the distance between observation points - can greatly increase the processing time.

Moreover, the maximum number of splines for each direction at each time is fixed, regardless of the spline step length. As the total number of splines used increases (i.e., with small spline step lengths), the region is automatically split into subregions for interpolation. Each subregion can contain no more than 150x150 splines. To avoid subregion boundary problems, subregions are created to partially overlap each other. A weighted mean of observations, based on point locations, is calculated within each subregion.

The Tykhonov regularization parameter (**lambda_i**) acts to
smooth the interpolation. With a small **lambda_i**, the interpolated
surface closely follows observation points; a larger value will produce a
smoother interpolation.

The input can be a 2D or 3D vector points map. If input is 3D and
**column** is not given than z-coordinates are used for interpolation.
Parameter **column** is required when input is 2D vector map.

*v.surf.bspline* can produce a **raster_output** OR a
**output** (but NOT simultaneously). Note that topology is not build for
output vector point map. The topology can be built if required by
*v.build*.

If output is a vector points map and a **sparse** vector points
map is not specified, the output vector map will contain points at the same
locations as observation points in the input map, but the values of the
output points are interpolated values. If instead a **sparse** vector
points map is specified, the output vector map will contain points at the
same locations as the sparse vector map points, and values will be those of
the interpolated raster surface at those points.

A cross validation "leave-one-out" analysis is available
to help to determine the optimal **lambda_i** value that produces an
interpolation that best fits the original observation data. The more points
used for cross-validation, the longer the time needed for computation.
Empirical testing indicates a threshold of a maximum of 100 points is
recommended. Note that cross validation can run very slowly if more than 100
observations are used. The cross-validation output reports *mean* and
*rms* of the residuals from the true point value and the estimated from
the interpolation for a fixed series of **lambda_i** values. No vector
nor raster output will be created when cross-validation is selected.

# EXAMPLES¶

## Basic interpolation¶

v.surf.bspline input=point_vector output=interpolate_surface method=bicubic

A bicubic spline interpolation will be done and a vector points map with estimated (i.e., interpolated) values will be created.

## Basic interpolation and raster output with a longer spline step¶

v.surf.bspline input=point_vector raster=interpolate_surface ew_step=25 ns_step=25

A bilinear spline interpolation will be done with a spline step length of 25 map units. An interpolated raster map will be created at the current region resolution.

## Estimation of lambda_i parameter with a cross validation process¶

v.surf.bspline -c input=point_vector

## Estimation on sparse points¶

v.surf.bspline input=point_vector sparse=sparse_points output=interpolate_surface

An output map of vector points will be created, corresponding to the sparse vector map, with interpolated values.

## Using attribute values instead z-coordinates¶

v.surf.bspline input=point_vector raster=interpolate_surface layer=1 \

column=attrib_column

The interpolation will be done using the values in
*attrib_column*, in the table associated with layer 1.

## North Carolina dataset example using z-coordinates for interpolation¶

g.region region=rural_1m res=2 -p v.surf.bspline input=elev_lid792_bepts raster=elev_lid792_rast \

ew_step=5 ns_step=5 method=bicubic lambda_i=0.1

# KNOWN ISSUES¶

Known issues:

In order to avoid RAM memory problems, an auxiliary table is
needed for recording some intermediate calculations. This requires the
*GROUP BY* SQL function is used, which is not supported by the DBF
driver. For this reason, vector map output (**output**) is not permitted
with the DBF driver. There are no problems with the raster map output from
the DBF driver.

# REFERENCES¶

- Brovelli M. A., Cannata M., and Longoni U.M., 2004, LIDAR Data Filtering and DTM Interpolation Within GRASS, Transactions in GIS, April 2004, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 155-174(20), Blackwell Publishing Ltd
- Brovelli M. A. and Cannata M., 2004, Digital Terrain model reconstruction in urban areas from airborne laser scanning data: the method and an example for Pavia (Northern Italy). Computers and Geosciences 30, pp.325-331
- Brovelli M. A e Longoni U.M., 2003, Software per il filtraggio di dati LIDAR, Rivista dell’Agenzia del Territorio, n. 3-2003, pp. 11-22 (ISSN 1593-2192)
- Antolin R. and Brovelli M.A., 2007, LiDAR data Filtering with GRASS GIS for the Determination of Digital Terrain Models. Proceedings of Jornadas de SIG Libre, Girona, España. CD ISBN: 978-84-690-3886-9

# SEE ALSO¶

*v.surf.idw,* *v.surf.rst*

Overview: Interpolation and Resampling in GRASS GIS

# AUTHORS¶

Original version (s.bspline.reg) in GRASS 5.4: Maria Antonia
Brovelli, Massimiliano Cannata, Ulisse Longoni, Mirko Reguzzoni

Update for GRASS 6 and improvements: Roberto Antolin

# SOURCE CODE¶

Available at: v.surf.bspline source code (history)

Accessed: Saturday Jul 27 17:08:53 2024

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© 2003-2024 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 8.4.0 Reference Manual

GRASS 8.4.0 |