NAME¶ipp - Include Pre-Processor
SYNOPSIS¶ipp [-D name=value] [-S includedir] [-I includedir] [-s includefile] [-i includefile] [-M options] [-P path] [-m mapfile] [-N nosynclines] [-o outputfile] [-v] inputfile ...
DESCRIPTION¶The ipp program reads all inputfiles and recursively expands all
#include 'file' #include "file" #include <file>
directives by substituting the directive with the contents of the file. The output is send to stdout or to outputfile. The files are searched according to the following scheme:
- #include 'file'
- The file is searched in the current working directory only. Use this to force the loading of a local file.
- #include "file"
- The file is searched in all directories given by the -I option in the right-to-left order they are specified on the command line. Note that a -I . implicit option is automatically appended to command-line options, then files are first searched in current directory.
- #include <file>
- First the file is searched in the system wide "ipp" include directory specified with the -S option. Second if it was not not found there it is searched for in all directories given by the -I option.
And it provides eight additional features:
Using Wildcards¶These characters have a special meaning in filenames:
- "*" Matches any string, including the null string.
- "?" Matches any single character.
- "[...]" Like bracketed expressions in regexps, matches any of the enclosed characters.
If you want to include all your templates, you may write
With the following parameters you can control the order and the number of included files using the #include 'pattern' directive:
- "IPP_SORT=scheme" Specify a sort criterion to include files. There are actually 3 different criteria : date (files are sorted according to their last modification time), name (this is the default) and numeric (filenames are sorted numerically).
- "IPP_REVERSE=scheme" As above, but resulting list of filenames is sorted in reverse order.
- "IPP_MAX=nmax" Only nmax files are included.
If you want to include the 5 newest include files of the news directory with file names like "20000131.inc", you may write:
#include 'news/*.inc' IPP_REVERSE IPP_MAX=5
In the files included with the "#include 'pattern'" directive, the following variables are set and can be read using "$(name)":
- "IPP_THIS" the full name of the included source file including path and extension
- "IPP_PREV" the full name of the previous included file, unset in the first file
- "IPP_NEXT" the full name of the next included file, unset in the last file
Keep in mind that a directive without wildcards does not set these variables.
Special `Use' Variant¶In analogon to Perl's "use" statement, ipp provides a special variant of "#include":
This internally is equivalent to the directive
plus the special semantic that the include file is included (=used) only once, i.e. multiple inclusion is automatically avoided. In other words
#include 'file' #include 'file' #use 'file' #use 'file'
results in three inclusions of 'file'. Two from the "#include"'s and only once from the "#use" directives.
Special `Depends' Variant¶You can easily write fragments of Makefiles with the -M flag (see below) to keep tracks of which files the output file depends on, When "ipp" is invoked as a piece of "WML", the final output file may depend on other files. You can tell "ipp" about these hidden dependencies by using the "#depends" variant , e.g.
#depends 'foo.dat' #depends "*/*.dat" #depends <file>
The contents of the file is not inserted, only information about dependencies are updated.
Input Line Synchronization¶All include commands insert some special stuff to help "WML" keeping track of input line numbers. This feature may be disabled by appending the string "IPP_NOSYNCLINES" to the "#include" (or its variants) command. See also the "-N" flag.
Include Variables¶You can add
pairs at the end of "#include" (and "#use") directives to let "$(name)" interpolate to "value" (or 1 if "=value" is missing) in this include file and all its recursively included files.
There are the following forms of the "$(name)" syntax, similar to the functionality any Bourne Shell provides:
- o "$(name)"
- `Use Only Value': The standard interpolation.
if (exists(name)) expandto(valueof(name)) else expandto("")
- o "$(name=string)"
- `Assign Value': Set a variable.
name := string
- o "$(name:-string)"
- `Use Default String': The standard interpolation with a default value.
if (exists(name)) expandto(valueof(name)) else expandto(string)
- o "$(name:=string)"
- `Use Default String and Assign': The standard interpolation with a default
value and additional assignment for later use.
if (exists(name)) expandto(valueof(name)) else expandto(string) name := string
- o "$(name:+string)"
- `Use Alternate String'. The replacement interpolation.
if (exists(name)) expandto(string) else expandto("")
- o "$(name:*string)"
- `Use Negative Alternate String'. The replacement interpolation with
if (exists(name)) expandto("") else expandto(string)
- o "$(name:?string)"
- `Indicate Error If Unset'. The error message interpolation. This can also
be used in conjunction with the above variants.
if (exists(name)) expandto(valueof(name)) else Error(string)
Previous constructs may be nested when variable expansion contains no parenthesis. You may for instance need these forms:
`Set a variable if unset'.
`Redefine a variable if it is already set.'
Notice that nested expressions are not handled as shells do. In shells expressions are treated from left to right, whereas "ipp" treat inner expressions first. With this example below
Bourne shells will show "bar" whereas "ipp" will print "quux".
It is also possible to undefine a variable. To do so, assign an empty value to this variable, e.g.
Notice the possibility to do simple If-Then-Else constructs:
This is equivalent to the following pseudo-code:
if (exists(foo)) expandto(string_when_set) else expandto(string_when_not_set)
Implicit IPP Variables¶The strings "__FILE__" and "__LINE__" are always substituted by the currently processed include file and the current line number.
Comments¶IPP provides support for up-to-end-of-line comments. This type of comment is like the one found in Bourne-Shell or Perl, i.e. any line which starts with a sharp symbol (`"#"') is entirely (i.e. including the newline at the end) removed from the input. Additionally these lines can have whitespaces in front of the sharp symbol. When you really need a sharp symbol at the start of a line you can use "\#", i.e. prefix it with an escaping backslash.
End-Of-File Stopping¶It stops processing the current include file when a line containing just
occurs. Use this to append POD documents to include files for documentation purposes as in Perl. You can use "__END__" in constructs like "$(SHORTENING:+__END__)", so that the processing is only stopped when the variable SHORTENING is set.
End-Of-Line Continuation¶It removes all occurrences of the pattern
Use this to let one or more lines to be concatenated.
- -D name=value
- Defines a variable the for the initial inputfile the same way you define ones with the #include for include files. The variable can be interpolated via "$(name)" in all files.
- -S includedir
- Adds a system wide include directory. You can use this option more than once. The files are searched in right-to-left order.
- -I includedir
- This adds an entry to the include path where include files are searched for. You can use this option more than once. The files are searched in right-to-left order. The current working directory is always appended as the last directory to this list, and so is searched first.
- -s includefile
- Pre-load a particular include file, i.e. virtually adds a
in front of inputfile. Use this to automatically load default system include files. You can also use the syntax "type::category::file" which leads to a virtually added
- -i includefile
- Pre-loads a particular include file, i.e. virtually adds a
in front of inputfile. Use this to automatically load default user include files. You can also use the syntax "type::category::file" which leads to a virtually added
- -M options
- Output a rule suitable for `make' describing the dependencies of each
output file, as `gcc' does. It has only sense when the -o option is
The D flag option writes the rule to a dependency file. The name of this file is obtained by replacing the suffix of the output file by ".d".
The M flag option deletes the system files from the list of dependencies.
- -P path
- This sets up one or more prolog program path which are applied to each single input file just before real processing starts. Use this to pre-process the data. Each program receives the data to act on as STDIN and has to produce the filtered data on STDOUT.
- -m mapfile
- This adds an entry to the list of mapfiles where a mapping between
obsolete include file names and current ones can be found. You can use
this option more than once. The mapfiles can contain the following lines:
# comment line <blank line> <oldname>[,<oldname>] <newname> \[S|W|E: <text>\]
<std/headfoot.wml>,wml::std::headfoot wml::OBSOLETE::std::headfoot [S]
- -N nosynclines
- By default, WML inserts some instructions to synchronize line numbers, which are then interpreted in passes 2 and 3. This option disables this feature.
- -o outputfile
- This redirects the output to outputfile. Usually the output will be send to "stdout" if no such option is specified or outputfile is ""-"".
- This sets verbose mode where some processing information will be given on the console.
Ralf S. Engelschall email@example.com www.engelschall.com Denis Barbier firstname.lastname@example.org