NAME¶systemctl - Control the systemd system and service manager
systemctl [OPTIONS...] COMMAND [UNIT...]
DESCRIPTION¶systemctl may be used to introspect and control the state of the "systemd" system and service manager. Please refer to systemd(1) for an introduction into the basic concepts and functionality this tool manages.
OPTIONS¶The following options are understood:
If one of the arguments is a unit type, when listing units, limit display to certain unit types. Otherwise, units of all types will be shown.
As a special case, if one of the arguments is help, a list of allowed values will be printed and the program will exit.
As a special case, if one of the arguments is help, a list of allowed values will be printed and the program will exit.
For the manager itself, systemctl show will show all available properties. Those properties are documented in systemd-system.conf(5).
Properties for units vary by unit type, so showing any unit (even a non-existent one) is a way to list properties pertaining to this type. Similarly, showing any job will list properties pertaining to all jobs. Properties for units are documented in systemd.unit(5), and the pages for individual unit types systemd.service(5), systemd.socket(5), etc.
To list all units installed in the file system, use the list-unit-files command instead.
When listing units with list-dependencies, recursively show dependencies of all dependent units (by default only dependencies of target units are shown).
When used with status, show journal messages in full, even if they include unprintable characters or are very long. By default, fields with unprintable characters are abbreviated as "blob data". (Note that the pager may escape unprintable characters again.)
Note that any After= dependency is automatically mirrored to create a Before= dependency. Temporal dependencies may be specified explicitly, but are also created implicitly for units which are WantedBy= targets (see systemd.target(5)), and as a result of other directives (for example RequiresMountsFor=). Both explicitly and implicitly introduced dependencies are shown with list-dependencies.
When passed to the list-jobs command, for each printed job show which other jobs are waiting for it. May be combined with --before to show both the jobs waiting for each job as well as all jobs each job is waiting for.
When passed to the list-jobs command, for each printed job show which other jobs it is waiting for. May be combined with --after to show both the jobs waiting for each job as well as all jobs each job is waiting for.
Also, show installation targets in the output of is-enabled.
If "fail" is specified and a requested operation conflicts with a pending job (more specifically: causes an already pending start job to be reversed into a stop job or vice versa), cause the operation to fail.
If "replace" (the default) is specified, any conflicting pending job will be replaced, as necessary.
If "replace-irreversibly" is specified, operate like "replace", but also mark the new jobs as irreversible. This prevents future conflicting transactions from replacing these jobs (or even being enqueued while the irreversible jobs are still pending). Irreversible jobs can still be cancelled using the cancel command. This job mode should be used on any transaction which pulls in shutdown.target.
"isolate" is only valid for start operations and causes all other units to be stopped when the specified unit is started. This mode is always used when the isolate command is used.
"flush" will cause all queued jobs to be canceled when the new job is enqueued.
If "ignore-dependencies" is specified, then all unit dependencies are ignored for this new job and the operation is executed immediately. If passed, no required units of the unit passed will be pulled in, and no ordering dependencies will be honored. This is mostly a debugging and rescue tool for the administrator and should not be used by applications.
"ignore-requirements" is similar to "ignore-dependencies", but only causes the requirement dependencies to be ignored, the ordering dependencies will still be honored.
When used with the kill command, if no units were killed, the operation results in an error.
When used with is-system-running, wait until the boot process is completed before returning.
When used with edit, create all of the specified units which do not already exist.
When used with halt, poweroff, reboot or kexec, execute the selected operation without shutting down all units. However, all processes will be killed forcibly and all file systems are unmounted or remounted read-only. This is hence a drastic but relatively safe option to request an immediate reboot. If --force is specified twice for these operations (with the exception of kexec), they will be executed immediately, without terminating any processes or unmounting any file systems. Warning: specifying --force twice with any of these operations might result in data loss. Note that when --force is specified twice the selected operation is executed by systemctl itself, and the system manager is not contacted. This means the command should succeed even when the system manager has crashed.
Similarly, when used with set-property, make changes only temporarily, so that they are lost on the next reboot.
COMMANDS¶The following commands are understood:
Unit Commands¶list-units [PATTERN...]
Produces output similar to
UNIT LOAD ACTIVE SUB DESCRIPTION sys-module-fuse.device loaded active plugged /sys/module/fuse -.mount loaded active mounted Root Mount boot-efi.mount loaded active mounted /boot/efi systemd-journald.service loaded active running Journal Service systemd-logind.service loaded active running Login Service ● email@example.com loaded failed failed User Manager for UID 1000 ... systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer loaded active waiting Daily Cleanup of Temporary Directories LOAD = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded. ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB. SUB = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type. 123 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too. To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.
The header and the last unit of a given type are underlined if the terminal supports that. A colored dot is shown next to services which were masked, not found, or otherwise failed.
The LOAD column shows the load state, one of loaded, not-found, bad-setting, error, masked. The ACTIVE columns shows the general unit state, one of active, reloading, inactive, failed, activating, deactivating. The SUB column shows the unit-type-specific detailed state of the unit, possible values vary by unit type. The list of possible LOAD, ACTIVE, and SUB states is not constant and new systemd releases may both add and remove values.
command maybe be used to display the current set of possible values.
This is the default command.
LISTEN UNIT ACTIVATES /dev/initctl systemd-initctl.socket systemd-initctl.service ... [::]:22 sshd.socket sshd.service kobject-uevent 1 systemd-udevd-kernel.socket systemd-udevd.service 5 sockets listed.
Note: because the addresses might contains spaces, this output is not suitable for programmatic consumption.
Also see --show-types, --all, and --state=.
NEXT LEFT LAST PASSED UNIT ACTIVATES n/a n/a Thu 2017-02-23 13:40:29 EST 3 days ago ureadahead-stop.timer ureadahead-stop.service Sun 2017-02-26 18:55:42 EST 1min 14s left Thu 2017-02-23 13:54:44 EST 3 days ago systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service Sun 2017-02-26 20:37:16 EST 1h 42min left Sun 2017-02-26 11:56:36 EST 6h ago apt-daily.timer apt-daily.service Sun 2017-02-26 20:57:49 EST 2h 3min left Sun 2017-02-26 11:56:36 EST 6h ago snapd.refresh.timer snapd.refresh.service
NEXT shows the next time the timer will run.
LEFT shows how long till the next time the timer runs.
LAST shows the last time the timer ran.
PASSED shows how long has passed since the timer last ran.
UNIT shows the name of the timer
ACTIVATES shows the name the service the timer activates when it runs.
Also see --all and --state=.
Note that glob patterns operate on the set of primary names of units currently in memory. Units which are not active and are not in a failed state usually are not in memory, and will not be matched by any pattern. In addition, in case of instantiated units, systemd is often unaware of the instance name until the instance has been started. Therefore, using glob patterns with start has limited usefulness. Also, secondary alias names of units are not considered.
This command should not be confused with the daemon-reload command.
Note that restarting a unit with this command does not necessarily flush out all of the unit's resources before it is started again. For example, the per-service file descriptor storage facility (see FileDescriptorStoreMax= in systemd.service(5)) will remain intact as long as the unit has a job pending, and is only cleared when the unit is fully stopped and no jobs are pending anymore. If it is intended that the file descriptor store is flushed out, too, during a restart operation an explicit systemctl stop command followed by systemctl start should be issued.
This is similar to changing the runlevel in a traditional init system. The isolate command will immediately stop processes that are not enabled in the new unit, possibly including the graphical environment or terminal you are currently using.
Note that this is allowed only on units where AllowIsolate= is enabled. See systemd.unit(5) for details.
This function is intended to generate human-readable output. If you are looking for computer-parsable output, use show instead. By default, this function only shows 10 lines of output and ellipsizes lines to fit in the terminal window. This can be changed with --lines and --full, see above. In addition, journalctl --unit=NAME or journalctl --user-unit=NAME use a similar filter for messages and might be more convenient.
systemd implicitly loads units as necessary, so just running the status will attempt to load a file. The command is thus not useful for determining if something was already loaded or not. The units may possibly also be quickly unloaded after the operation is completed if there's no reason to keep it in memory thereafter.
Example 1. Example output from systemctl status
$ systemctl status bluetooth ● bluetooth.service - Bluetooth service Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/bluetooth.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Wed 2017-01-04 13:54:04 EST; 1 weeks 0 days ago Docs: man:bluetoothd(8) Main PID: 930 (bluetoothd) Status: "Running" Tasks: 1 Memory: 648.0K CPU: 435ms CGroup: /system.slice/bluetooth.service └─930 /usr/lib/bluetooth/bluetoothd Jan 12 10:46:45 example.com bluetoothd: Not enough free handles to register service Jan 12 10:46:45 example.com bluetoothd: Current Time Service could not be registered Jan 12 10:46:45 example.com bluetoothd: gatt-time-server: Input/output error (5)
The dot ("●") uses color on supported terminals to summarize the unit state at a glance. White indicates an "inactive" or "deactivating" state. Red indicates a "failed" or "error" state and green indicates an "active", "reloading" or "activating" state.
The "Loaded:" line in the output will show "loaded" if the unit has been loaded into memory. Other possible values for "Loaded:" include: "error" if there was a problem loading it, "not-found" if not unit file was found for this unit, "bad-setting" if an essential unit file setting could not be parsed and "masked" if the unit file has been masked. Along with showing the path to the unit file, this line will also show the enablement state. Enabled commands start at boot. See the full table of possible enablement states — including the definition of "masked" — in the documentation for the is-enabled command.
The "Active:" line shows active state. The value is usually "active" or "inactive". Active could mean started, bound, plugged in, etc depending on the unit type. The unit could also be in process of changing states, reporting a state of "activating" or "deactivating". A special "failed" state is entered when the service failed in some way, such as a crash, exiting with an error code or timing out. If the failed state is entered the cause will be logged for later reference.
Many properties shown by systemctl show map directly to configuration settings of the system and service manager and its unit files. Note that the properties shown by the command are generally more low-level, normalized versions of the original configuration settings and expose runtime state in addition to configuration. For example, properties shown for service units include the service's current main process identifier as "MainPID" (which is runtime state), and time settings are always exposed as properties ending in the "...USec" suffix even if a matching configuration options end in "...Sec", because microseconds is the normalized time unit used by the system and service manager.
set-property UNIT PROPERTY=VALUE...
Example: systemctl set-property foobar.service CPUShares=777
If the specified unit appears to be inactive, the changes will be only stored on disk as described previously hence they will be effective when the unit will be started.
Note that this command allows changing multiple properties at the same time, which is preferable over setting them individually. Like with unit file configuration settings, assigning an empty list will reset the property.
In addition to resetting the "failed" state of a unit it also resets various other per-unit properties: the start rate limit counter of all unit types is reset to zero, as is the restart counter of service units. Thus, if a unit's start limit (as configured with StartLimitIntervalSec=/StartLimitBurst=) is hit and the unit refuses to be started again, use this command to make it startable again.
By default, only target units are recursively expanded. When --all is passed, all other units are recursively expanded as well.
Options --reverse, --after, --before may be used to change what types of dependencies are shown.
Note that this command only lists units currently loaded into memory by the service manager. In particular, this command is not suitable to get a comprehensive list at all reverse dependencies on a specific unit, as it won't list the dependencies declared by units currently not loaded.
Unit File Commands¶list-unit-files [PATTERN...]
enable UNIT..., enable PATH...
This command expects either valid unit names (in which case various unit file directories are automatically searched for unit files with appropriate names), or absolute paths to unit files (in which case these files are read directly). If a specified unit file is located outside of the usual unit file directories, an additional symlink is created, linking it into the unit configuration path, thus ensuring it is found when requested by commands such as start. The file system where the linked unit files are located must be accessible when systemd is started (e.g. anything underneath /home or /var is not allowed, unless those directories are located on the root file system).
This command will print the file system operations executed. This output may be suppressed by passing --quiet.
Note that this operation creates only the symlinks suggested in the "[Install]" section of the unit files. While this command is the recommended way to manipulate the unit configuration directory, the administrator is free to make additional changes manually by placing or removing symlinks below this directory. This is particularly useful to create configurations that deviate from the suggested default installation. In this case, the administrator must make sure to invoke daemon-reload manually as necessary, in order to ensure the changes are taken into account.
Enabling units should not be confused with starting (activating) units, as done by the start command. Enabling and starting units is orthogonal: units may be enabled without being started and started without being enabled. Enabling simply hooks the unit into various suggested places (for example, so that the unit is automatically started on boot or when a particular kind of hardware is plugged in). Starting actually spawns the daemon process (in case of service units), or binds the socket (in case of socket units), and so on.
Depending on whether --system, --user, --runtime, or --global is specified, this enables the unit for the system, for the calling user only, for only this boot of the system, or for all future logins of all users. Note that in the last case, no systemd daemon configuration is reloaded.
Using enable on masked units is not supported and results in an error.
This command expects valid unit names only, it does not accept paths to unit files.
In addition to the units specified as arguments, all units are disabled that are listed in the Also= setting contained in the "[Install]" section of any of the unit files being operated on.
This command implicitly reloads the system manager configuration after completing the operation. Note that this command does not implicitly stop the units that are being disabled. If this is desired, either combine this command with the --now switch, or invoke the stop command with appropriate arguments later.
This command will print information about the file system operations (symlink removals) executed. This output may be suppressed by passing --quiet.
This command honors --system, --user, --runtime and --global in a similar way as enable.
Use --preset-mode= to control whether units shall be enabled and disabled, or only enabled, or only disabled.
If the unit carries no install information, it will be silently ignored by this command. UNIT must be the real unit name, any alias names are ignored silently.
For more information on the preset policy format, see systemd.preset(5). For more information on the concept of presets, please consult the Preset document.
Use --preset-mode= to control whether units shall be enabled and disabled, or only enabled, or only disabled.
Table 1. is-enabled output
|"enabled"||Enabled via .wants/, .requires/ or Alias= symlinks (permanently in /etc/systemd/system/, or transiently in /run/systemd/system/).||0|
|"linked"||Made available through one or more symlinks to the unit file (permanently in /etc/systemd/system/ or transiently in /run/systemd/system/), even though the unit file might reside outside of the unit file search path.||> 0|
|"masked"||Completely disabled, so that any start operation on it fails (permanently in /etc/systemd/system/ or transiently in /run/systemd/systemd/).||> 0|
|"static"||The unit file is not enabled, and has no provisions for enabling in the "[Install]" unit file section.||0|
|"indirect"||The unit file itself is not enabled, but it has a non-empty Also= setting in the "[Install]" unit file section, listing other unit files that might be enabled, or it has an alias under a different name through a symlink that is not specified in Also=. For template unit file, an instance different than the one specified in DefaultInstance= is enabled.||0|
|"disabled"||The unit file is not enabled, but contains an "[Install]" section with installation instructions.||> 0|
|"generated"||The unit file was generated dynamically via a generator tool. See systemd.generator(7). Generated unit files may not be enabled, they are enabled implicitly by their generator.||0|
|"transient"||The unit file has been created dynamically with the runtime API. Transient units may not be enabled.||0|
|"bad"||The unit file is invalid or another error occurred. Note that is-enabled will not actually return this state, but print an error message instead. However the unit file listing printed by list-unit-files might show it.||> 0|
Effectively, this command may be used to undo all changes made with systemctl edit, systemctl set-property and systemctl mask and puts the original unit file with its settings back in effect.
add-wants TARGET UNIT..., add-requires TARGET UNIT...
This command honors --system, --user, --runtime and --global in a way similar to enable.
Depending on whether --system (the default), --user, or --global is specified, this command creates a drop-in file for each unit either for the system, for the calling user, or for all futures logins of all users. Then, the editor (see the "Environment" section below) is invoked on temporary files which will be written to the real location if the editor exits successfully.
If --full is specified, this will copy the original units instead of creating drop-in files.
If --force is specified and any units do not already exist, new unit files will be opened for editing.
If --runtime is specified, the changes will be made temporarily in /run and they will be lost on the next reboot.
If the temporary file is empty upon exit, the modification of the related unit is canceled.
After the units have been edited, systemd configuration is reloaded (in a way that is equivalent to daemon-reload).
Note that this command cannot be used to remotely edit units and that you cannot temporarily edit units which are in /etc, since they take precedence over /run.
Machine Commands¶list-machines [PATTERN...]
Job Commands¶list-jobs [PATTERN...]
When combined with --after or --before the list is augmented with information on which other job each job is waiting for, and which other jobs are waiting for it, see above.
Manager Lifecycle Commands¶daemon-reload
This command should not be confused with the reload command.
Use --wait to wait until the boot process is completed before printing the current state and returning the appropriate error status. If --wait is in use, states initializing or starting will not be reported, instead the command will block until a later state (such as running or degraded) is reached.
Table 2. is-system-running output
|initializing||Early bootup, before basic.target is reached or the maintenance state entered.||> 0|
|starting||Late bootup, before the job queue becomes idle for the first time, or one of the rescue targets are reached.||> 0|
|running||The system is fully operational.||0|
|degraded||The system is operational but one or more units failed.||> 0|
|maintenance||The rescue or emergency target is active.||> 0|
|stopping||The manager is shutting down.||> 0|
|offline||The manager is not running. Specifically, this is the operational state if an incompatible program is running as system manager (PID 1).||> 0|
|unknown||The operational state could not be determined, due to lack of resources or another error cause.||> 0|
If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is skipped, however all processes are killed and all file systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately followed by the system halt. If --force is specified twice, the operation is immediately executed without terminating any processes or unmounting any file systems. This may result in data loss. Note that when --force is specified twice the halt operation is executed by systemctl itself, and the system manager is not contacted. This means the command should succeed even when the system manager has crashed.
If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is skipped, however all processes are killed and all file systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately followed by the powering off. If --force is specified twice, the operation is immediately executed without terminating any processes or unmounting any file systems. This may result in data loss. Note that when --force is specified twice the power-off operation is executed by systemctl itself, and the system manager is not contacted. This means the command should succeed even when the system manager has crashed.
If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is skipped, however all processes are killed and all file systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately followed by the reboot. If --force is specified twice, the operation is immediately executed without terminating any processes or unmounting any file systems. This may result in data loss. Note that when --force is specified twice the reboot operation is executed by systemctl itself, and the system manager is not contacted. This means the command should succeed even when the system manager has crashed.
If the optional argument arg is given, it will be passed as the optional argument to the reboot(2) system call. The value is architecture and firmware specific. As an example, "recovery" might be used to trigger system recovery, and "fota" might be used to trigger a “firmware over the air” update.
If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is skipped, however all processes are killed and all file systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately followed by the reboot.
The service manager will exit with the specified exit code, if EXIT_CODE is passed.
switch-root ROOT [INIT]
Parameter Syntax¶Unit commands listed above take either a single unit name (designated as UNIT), or multiple unit specifications (designated as PATTERN...). In the first case, the unit name with or without a suffix must be given. If the suffix is not specified (unit name is "abbreviated"), systemctl will append a suitable suffix, ".service" by default, and a type-specific suffix in case of commands which operate only on specific unit types. For example,
# systemctl start sshd
# systemctl start sshd.service
are equivalent, as are
# systemctl isolate default
# systemctl isolate default.target
Note that (absolute) paths to device nodes are automatically converted to device unit names, and other (absolute) paths to mount unit names.
# systemctl status /dev/sda # systemctl status /home
are equivalent to:
# systemctl status dev-sda.device # systemctl status home.mount
In the second case, shell-style globs will be matched against the primary names of all units currently in memory; literal unit names, with or without a suffix, will be treated as in the first case. This means that literal unit names always refer to exactly one unit, but globs may match zero units and this is not considered an error.
Glob patterns use fnmatch(3), so normal shell-style globbing rules are used, and "*", "?", "" may be used. See glob(7) for more details. The patterns are matched against the primary names of units currently in memory, and patterns which do not match anything are silently skipped. For example:
# systemctl stop sshd@*.service
will stop all sshd@.service instances. Note that alias names of units, and units that aren't in memory are not considered for glob expansion.
For unit file commands, the specified UNIT should be the name of the unit file (possibly abbreviated, see above), or the absolute path to the unit file:
# systemctl enable foo.service
# systemctl link /path/to/foo.service
EXIT STATUS¶On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.
systemctl uses the return codes defined by LSB, as defined in LSB 3.0.0.
Table 3. LSB return codes
|Value||Description in LSB||Use in systemd|
|0||"program is running or service is OK"||unit is active|
|1||"program is dead and /var/run pid file exists"||unit not failed (used by is-failed)|
|2||"program is dead and /var/lock lock file exists"||unused|
|3||"program is not running"||unit is not active|
|4||"program or service status is unknown"||no such unit|
The mapping of LSB service states to systemd unit states is
imperfect, so it is better to not rely on those return values but to look
for specific unit states and substates instead.
If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the executable. This allows less to handle Ctrl+C itself.
SEE ALSO¶systemd(1), journalctl(1), loginctl(1), machinectl(1), systemd.unit(5), systemd.resource-control(5), systemd.special(7), wall(1), systemd.preset(5), systemd.generator(7), glob(7)
- LSB 3.0.0