## table of contents

LIBDOGLEG(3) | libdogleg: Powell's dogleg method | LIBDOGLEG(3) |

# NAME¶

libdogleg - A general purpose optimizer to solve data fitting problems

# NOTICE¶

If you're considering using this library for new projects, please look at the "ceres" solver instead:

"libdogleg" is not deprecated,
and I will fix bugs as they're reported. However
"ceres" is more feature-rich and
*much* more widely used. I consider
"ceres" to be a superset of
"libdogleg", and if
"ceres" was available when I wrote
"libdogleg", I would not have written
it.

# DESCRIPTION¶

This is a library for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization
problems. By employing sparse linear algebra, it is taylored for problems
that have weak coupling between the optimization variables. For
appropriately sparse problems this results in *massive* performance
gains.

For smaller problems with dense Jacobians a dense mode is available also. This utilizes the same optimization loop as the sparse code, but uses dense linear algebra.

The main task of this library is to find the vector **p** that
minimizes

norm2( **x** )

where **x** = *f*(**p**) is a vector that has higher
dimensionality than **p**. The user passes in a callback function (of
type "dogleg_callback_t") that takes in
the vector **p** and returns the vector **x** and a matrix of
derivatives **J** = d**f**/d**p**. **J** is a matrix with a row
for each element of *f* and a column for each element of **p**. If
**J** is a sparse matrix, then this library can take advantage of that,
which results in substantial increases in computational efficiency if most
entries of **J** are 0. **J** is stored row-first in the callback
routine. libdogleg uses a column-first data representation so it references
the transpose of **J** (called **Jt**). **J** stored row-first is
identical to **Jt** stored column-first; this is purely a naming
choice.

This library implements Powell's dog-leg algorithm to solve the problem. Like the more-widely-known Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Powell's dog-leg algorithm solves a nonlinear optimization problem by interpolating between a Gauss-Newton step and a gradient descent step. Improvements over LM are

- a more natural representation of the linearity of the operating point (trust region size vs a vague lambda term).
- significant efficiency gains, since a matrix inversion isn't needed to retry a rejected step

The algorithm is described in many places, originally in

M. Powell. A Hybrid Method for Nonlinear Equations. In P. Rabinowitz, editor, Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Algebraic Equations, pages 87-144. Gordon and Breach Science, London, 1970.

Various enhancements to Powell's original method are described in the literature; at this time only the original algorithm is implemented here.

The sparse matrix algebra is handled by the CHOLMOD library, written by Tim Davis. Parts of CHOLMOD are licensed under the GPL and parts under the LGPL. Only the LGPL pieces are used here, allowing libdogleg to be licensed under the LGPL as well. Due to this I lose some convenience (all simple sparse matrix arithmetic in CHOLMOD is GPL-ed) and some performance (the fancier computational methods, such as supernodal analysis are GPL-ed). For my current applications the performance losses are minor.

# FUNCTIONS AND TYPES¶

## Main API¶

*dogleg_optimize2*

This is the main call to the library for *sparse* Jacobians.
It's declared as

double dogleg_optimize2(double* p, unsigned int Nstate, unsigned int Nmeas, unsigned int NJnnz, dogleg_callback_t* f, void* cookie, const dogleg_parameters2_t* parameters, dogleg_solverContext_t** returnContext);

**p**is the initial estimate of the state vector (and holds the final result)- "Nstate" specifies the number of
optimization variables (elements of
**p**) - "Nmeas" specifies the number of
measurements (elements of
**x**). "Nmeas >= Nstate" is a requirement - "NJnnz" specifies the number of non-zero
elements of the jacobian matrix d
**f**/d**p**. In a dense matrix "Jnnz = Nstate*Nmeas". We are dealing with sparse jacobians, so "NJnnz" should be far less. If not, libdogleg is not an appropriate routine to solve this problem. - "f" specifies the callback function that the optimization routine calls to sample the problem being solved
- "cookie" is an arbitrary data pointer passed untouched to "f"
- "parameters" a pointer to the set of parameters to use. Set to "NULL" to use the global parameters, or call "dogleg_optimize" instead. See the Parameters section below for more details
- If not "NULL",
"returnContext" can be used to retrieve
the full context structure from the solver. This can be useful since this
structure contains the latest operating point values. It also has an
active "cholmod_common" structure, which
can be reused if more CHOLMOD routines need to be called externally. You
usually want
"returnContext->beforeStep".
*If**this data is requested, the user is required to free it with**"dogleg_freeContext"**when done*.

"dogleg_optimize" returns norm2(
**x** ) at the minimum, or a negative value if an error occurred.

*dogleg_optimize*

This is a flavor of "dogleg_optimize2" that implicitly uses the global parameters. It's declared as

double dogleg_optimize(double* p, unsigned int Nstate, unsigned int Nmeas, unsigned int NJnnz, dogleg_callback_t* f, void* cookie, dogleg_solverContext_t** returnContext);

*dogleg_optimize_dense2*

This is the main call to the library for *dense* Jacobians.
Its declared as

double dogleg_optimize_dense2(double* p, unsigned int Nstate, unsigned int Nmeas, dogleg_callback_dense_t* f, void* cookie, const dogleg_parameters2_t* parameters, dogleg_solverContext_t** returnContext);

The arguments are almost identical to those in the "dogleg_optimize" call.

**p**is the initial estimate of the state vector (and holds the final result)- "Nstate" specifies the number of
optimization variables (elements of
**p**) - "Nmeas" specifies the number of
measurements (elements of
**x**). "Nmeas >= Nstate" is a requirement - "f" specifies the callback function that the optimization routine calls to sample the problem being solved. Note that this callback has a different type from that in "dogleg_optimize"
- "cookie" is an arbitrary data pointer passed untouched to "f"
- "parameters" a pointer to the set of parameters to use. Set to "NULL" to use the global parameters, or call "dogleg_optimize" instead. See the Parameters section below for more details
- If not "NULL",
"returnContext" can be used to retrieve
the full context structure from the solver. This can be useful since this
structure contains the latest operating point values. You usually want
"returnContext->beforeStep".
*If this data is requested, the user is**required to free it with**"dogleg_freeContext"**when done*.

"dogleg_optimize" returns norm2(
**x** ) at the minimum, or a negative value if an error occurred.

*dogleg_optimize_dense*

This is a flavor of "dogleg_optimize_dense2" that implicitly uses the global parameters. It's declared as

double dogleg_optimize_dense(double* p, unsigned int Nstate, unsigned int Nmeas, dogleg_callback_dense_t* f, void* cookie, dogleg_solverContext_t** returnContext);

*dogleg_freeContext*

Used to deallocate memory used for an optimization cycle. Defined as:

void dogleg_freeContext(dogleg_solverContext_t** ctx);

If a pointer to a context is not requested (by passing
"returnContext = NULL" to
"dogleg_optimize"), libdogleg calls this
routine automatically. If the user *did* retrieve this pointer, though,
it must be freed with "dogleg_freeContext"
when the user is finished.

*dogleg_computeJtJfactorization*

Computes the cholesky decomposition of JtJ. This function is only exposed if you need to touch libdogleg internals via returnContext. Sometimes after computing an optimization you want to do stuff with the factorization of JtJ, and this call ensures that the factorization is available. Most people don't need this function. If the comment wasn't clear, you don't need this function.

This is declared as

void dogleg_computeJtJfactorization(dogleg_operatingPoint_t* point, dogleg_solverContext_t* ctx);

The arguments are

- "point" is the operating point of the system. Generally this will be "returnContext->beforeStep" where "returnContext" is from one of the "dogleg_optimize_..." functions.
- "ctx" is the dogleg context. Generally this will be "returnContext" from one of the "dogleg_optimize_..." functions

*dogleg_testGradient*

libdogleg requires the user to compute the jacobian matrix
**J**. This is a performance optimization, since **J** could be
computed by differences of **x**. This optimization is often worth the
extra effort, but it creates a possibility that **J** will have a mistake
and **J** = d**f**/d**p** would not be true. To find these types of
issues, the user can call

void dogleg_testGradient(unsigned int var, const double* p0, unsigned int Nstate, unsigned int Nmeas, unsigned int NJnnz, dogleg_callback_t* f, void* cookie);

This function computes the jacobian with center differences and compares the result with the jacobian computed by the callback function. It is recommended to do this for every variable while developing the program that uses libdogleg.

- "var" is the index of the variable being tested
- "p0" is the state vector
**p**where we're evaluating the jacobian - "Nstate", "Nmeas", "NJnnz" are the number of state variables, measurements and non-zero jacobian elements, as before
- "f" is the callback function, as before
- "cookie" is the user data, as before

This function returns nothing, but prints out the test results.

*dogleg_testGradient_dense*

Very similar to "dogleg_testGradient", but for dense jacobians.

void dogleg_testGradient_dense(unsigned int var, const double* p0, unsigned int Nstate, unsigned int Nmeas, dogleg_callback_dense_t* f, void* cookie);

This function computes the jacobian with center differences and compares the result with the jacobian computed by the callback function. It is recommended to do this for every variable while developing the program that uses libdogleg.

- "var" is the index of the variable being tested
- "p0" is the state vector
**p**where we're evaluating the jacobian - "Nstate", "NJnnz" are the number of state variables, measurements
- "f" is the callback function, as before
- "cookie" is the user data, as before

This function returns nothing, but prints out the test results.

*dogleg_callback_t*

The main user callback that specifies the sparse optimization problem has type

typedef void (dogleg_callback_t)(const double* p, double* x, cholmod_sparse* Jt, void* cookie);

**p**is the current state vector**x**is the resulting*f*(**p**)**Jt**is the transpose of d**f**/d**p**at**p**. As mentioned previously,**Jt**is stored column-first by CHOLMOD, which can be interpreted as storing**J**row-first by the user-defined callback routine- The "cookie" is the user-defined arbitrary data passed into "dogleg_optimize".

*dogleg_callback_dense_t*

The main user callback that specifies the dense optimization problem has type

typedef void (dogleg_callback_dense_t)(const double* p, double* x, double* J, void* cookie);

**p**is the current state vector**x**is the resulting*f*(**p**)**J**is d**f**/d**p**at**p**.**J**is stored row-first, with all the derivatives for the first measurement, then all the derivatives for the second measurement and so on.- The "cookie" is the user-defined arbitrary data passed into "dogleg_optimize".

*dogleg_solverContext_t*

This is the solver context that can be retrieved through the
"returnContext" parameter of the
"dogleg_optimize" call. This structure
contains *all* the internal state used by the solver. If requested, the
user is responsible for calling
"dogleg_freeContext" when done. This
structure is defined as:

typedef struct { cholmod_common common; union { dogleg_callback_t* f; dogleg_callback_dense_t* f_dense; }; void* cookie; // between steps, beforeStep contains the operating point of the last step. // afterStep is ONLY used while making the step. Externally, use beforeStep // unless you really know what you're doing dogleg_operatingPoint_t* beforeStep; dogleg_operatingPoint_t* afterStep; // The result of the last JtJ factorization performed. Note that JtJ is not // necessarily factorized at every step, so this is NOT guaranteed to contain // the factorization of the most recent JtJ union { cholmod_factor* factorization; // This is a factorization of JtJ, stored as a packed symmetric matrix // returned by dpptrf('L', ...) double* factorization_dense; }; // Have I ever seen a singular JtJ? If so, I add this constant to the diagonal // from that point on. This is a simple and fast way to deal with // singularities. This constant starts at 0, and is increased every time a // singular JtJ is encountered. This is suboptimal but works for me for now. double lambda; // Are we using sparse math (cholmod)? int is_sparse; int Nstate, Nmeasurements; } dogleg_solverContext_t;

Some of the members are copies of the data passed into "dogleg_optimize"; some others are internal state. Of potential interest are

- "common" is a cholmod_common structure used by all CHOLMOD calls. This can be used for any extra CHOLMOD work the user may want to do
- "beforeStep" contains the operating point of the optimum solution. The user can analyze this data without the need to re-call the callback routine.

*dogleg_operatingPoint_t*

An operating point of the solver. This is a part of
"dogleg_solverContext_t". Various
variables describing the operating point such as **p**, **J**,
**x**, **norm2(x)** and **Jt x** are available. All of the
just-mentioned variables are computed at every step and are thus always
valid.

// an operating point of the solver typedef struct { double* p; double* x; double norm2_x; union { cholmod_sparse* Jt; double* J_dense; // row-first: grad0, grad1, grad2, ... }; double* Jt_x; // the cached update vectors. It's useful to cache these so that when a step is rejected, we can // reuse these when we retry double* updateCauchy; union { cholmod_dense* updateGN_cholmoddense; double* updateGN_dense; }; double updateCauchy_lensq, updateGN_lensq; // update vector lengths // whether the current update vectors are correct or not int updateCauchy_valid, updateGN_valid; int didStepToEdgeOfTrustRegion; } dogleg_operatingPoint_t;

## Parameters¶

The optimization is controlled by several parameters. These can be
set globally for *all* callers of
"libdogleg" in a process using the
"dogleg_set....()" functions. Those global
values are used by "dogleg_optimize" and
"dogleg_optimize_dense". Or these can be
specified independently for each invocation by passing a
"parameters" argument to
"dogleg_optimize2" or
"dogleg_optimize_dense2". The latter is
recommended because multiple instances of libdogleg in a single application
would no longer conflict.

It is not required to set any of these, but it's highly
recommended to set the initial trust-region size and the termination
thresholds to match the problem being solved. Furthermore, it's highly
recommended for the problem being solved to be scaled so that every state
variable affects the objective norm2( **x** ) equally. This makes this
method's concept of "trust region" much more well-defined and
makes the termination criteria work correctly.

*dogleg_setMaxIterations*

To set the maximum number of solver iterations, call

void dogleg_setMaxIterations(int n);

*dogleg_setDebug*

To turn on diagnostic output, call

void dogleg_setDebug(int debug);

with a non-zero value for "debug". Two separate diagnostic streams are available: a verbose human-oriented stream, and a vnlog <http://github.com/dkogan/vnlog>.

By default, diagnostic output is disabled. The "debug" argument is a bit-mapped integer:

if(debug == 0 ): no diagnostic output if(debug & DOGLEG_DEBUG_VNLOG): output vnlog diagnostics to stdout if(debug & ~DOGLEG_DEBUG_VNLOG): output human-oriented diagnostics to stderr

"DOGLEG_DEBUG_VNLOG" has a very high value, so if human diagnostics are desired, the recommended call is:

dogleg_setDebug(1);

*dogleg_setInitialTrustregion*

The optimization method keeps track of a trust region size. Here,
the trust region is a ball in R^Nstate. When the method takes a step
**p** -> **p + delta_p**, it makes sure that

sqrt( norm2( **delta_p** ) ) < trust region size.

The initial value of the trust region size can be set with

void dogleg_setInitialTrustregion(double t);

The dogleg algorithm is efficient when recomputing a rejected step for a smaller trust region, so set the initial trust region size to a value larger to a reasonable estimate; the method will quickly shrink the trust region to the correct size.

*dogleg_setThresholds*

The routine exits when the maximum number of iterations is exceeded, or a termination threshold is hit, whichever happens first. The termination thresholds are all designed to trigger when very slow progress is being made. If all went well, this slow progress is due to us finding the optimum. There are 3 termination thresholds:

- The function being minimized is E = norm2(
**x**) where**x**=*f*(**p**).dE/d

**p**= 2***Jt*****x**where**Jt**is transpose(d**x**/d**p**).if( for every i fabs(Jt_x[i]) < JT_X_THRESHOLD ) { we are done; }

- The method takes discrete steps:
**p**->**p + delta_p**if( for every i fabs(delta_p[i]) < UPDATE_THRESHOLD) { we are done; }

- The method dynamically controls the trust region.
if(trustregion < TRUSTREGION_THRESHOLD) { we are done; }

To set these threholds, call

void dogleg_setThresholds(double Jt_x, double update, double trustregion);

To leave a particular threshold alone, specify a negative value.

*dogleg_setTrustregionUpdateParameters*

This function sets the parameters that control when and how the trust region is updated. The default values should work well in most cases, and shouldn't need to be tweaked.

Declaration looks like

void dogleg_setTrustregionUpdateParameters(double downFactor, double downThreshold, double upFactor, double upThreshold);

To see what the parameters do, look at "evaluateStep_adjustTrustRegion" in the source. Again, these should just work as is.

# BUGS¶

The current implementation doesn't handle a singular **JtJ**
gracefully (**JtJ** = **Jt** * **J**). Analytically, **JtJ** is
at worst positive semi-definite (has 0 eigenvalues). If a singular
**JtJ** is ever encountered, from that point on, **JtJ** +
lambda***I** is inverted instead for some positive constant lambda. This
makes the matrix strictly positive definite, but is sloppy. At least I
should vary lambda. In my current applications, a singular **JtJ** only
occurs if at a particular operating point the vector **x** has no
dependence at all on some elements of **p**. In the general case other
causes could exist, though.

There's an inefficiency in that the callback always returns
**x** and **J**. When I evaluate and reject a step, I do not end up
using **J** at all. Dependng on the callback function, it may be better
to ask for **x** and then, if the step is accepted, to ask for
**J**.

# AUTHOR¶

Dima Kogan, "<dima@secretsauce.net>"

# LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT¶

Copyright 2011 Oblong Industries

2017 Dima Kogan <dima@secretsauce.net>

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

The full text of the license is available at <http://www.gnu.org/licenses>

2020-12-11 | libdogleg 0.15.4 |