This command is used to combine all objects that do not currently
reside in a "pack", into a pack. It can also be used to
re-organize existing packs into a single, more efficient pack.
A pack is a collection of objects, individually compressed, with
delta compression applied, stored in a single file, with an associated index
Packs are used to reduce the load on mirror systems, backup
engines, disk storage, etc.
Instead of incrementally packing the unpacked objects,
pack everything referenced into a single pack. Especially useful when packing
a repository that is used for private development. Use with -d
will clean up the objects that git prune
leaves behind, but git fsck
shows as dangling.
Note that users fetching over dumb protocols will have to fetch
the whole new pack in order to get any contained object, no matter how many
other objects in that pack they already have locally.
Promisor packfiles are repacked separately: if there are packfiles
that have an associated ".promisor" file, these packfiles will be
repacked into another separate pack, and an empty ".promisor" file
corresponding to the new separate pack will be written.
Same as -a
, unless -d
is used. Then any
unreachable objects in a previous pack become loose, unpacked objects, instead
of being left in the old pack. Unreachable objects are never intentionally
added to a pack, even when repacking. This option prevents unreachable objects
from being immediately deleted by way of being left in the old pack and then
removed. Instead, the loose unreachable objects will be pruned according to
normal expiry rules with the next git gc
After packing, if the newly created packs make some
existing packs redundant, remove the redundant packs. Also run git
prune-packed to remove redundant loose object files.
Do not update the server information with git
. This option skips updating local catalog files needed
to publish this repository (or a direct copy of it) over HTTP or FTP. See
These two options affect how the objects contained in the
pack are stored using delta compression. The objects are first internally
sorted by type, size and optionally names and compared against the other
objects within --window
to see if using delta compression saves space.
limits the maximum delta depth; making it too deep affects the
performance on the unpacker side, because delta data needs to be applied that
many times to get to the necessary object.
The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50. The
maximum depth is 4095.
This option is passed through to git
This option provides an additional limit on top of
; the window size will dynamically scale down so as to not take
up more than <n>
bytes in memory. This is useful in repositories
with a mix of large and small objects to not run out of memory with a large
window, but still be able to take advantage of the large window for the
smaller objects. The size can be suffixed with "k", "m",
or "g". --window-memory=0
makes memory usage unlimited. The
default is taken from the pack.windowMemory
Note that the actual memory usage will be the limit multiplied by the number
of threads used by git-pack-objects(1)
Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be
suffixed with "k", "m", or "g". The minimum size
allowed is limited to 1 MiB. If specified, multiple packfiles may be created,
which also prevents the creation of a bitmap index. The default is unlimited,
unless the config variable pack.packSizeLimit is set.
Write a reachability bitmap index as part of the repack.
This only makes sense when used with -a or -A, as the bitmaps
must be able to refer to all reachable objects. This option overrides the
setting of repack.writeBitmaps. This option has no effect if multiple
packfiles are created.
Include objects in .keep files when repacking.
Note that we still do not delete .keep packs after pack-objects
finishes. This means that we may duplicate objects, but this makes the option
safe to use when there are concurrent pushes or fetches. This option is
generally only useful if you are writing bitmaps with -b or
repack.writeBitmaps, as it ensures that the bitmapped packfile has the
Exclude the given pack from repacking. This is the
equivalent of having .keep file on the pack. <pack-name>
is the pack file name without leading directory (e.g. pack-123.pack).
The option could be specified multiple times to keep multiple packs.
When loosening unreachable objects, do not bother
loosening any objects older than <when>. This can be used to
optimize out the write of any objects that would be immediately pruned by a
follow-up git prune.
When used with -ad, any unreachable objects from
existing packs will be appended to the end of the packfile instead of being
removed. In addition, any unreachable loose objects will be packed (and their
loose counterparts removed).